Wednesday, July 31, 2019

National Honor Society Essay

Being nominated to become a member of the National Honor Society is a highly prestigious honor, and I am very grateful to be a candidate. I have always strove to do the best that I can to achieve the highest grades possible and to stand out amongst my peers. Not only do I focus on my academics, but I strive to be an outstanding asset to the student body throughout my years here at East Clinton High School as well. Getting admitted into the National Honor Society has been one of my goals since I first arrived here at high school, and I have recognized the standards for entry into the organization. I understand that to become an official member of the society, I need to acquire and demonstrate four key characteristics of an ideal National Honor Society member: scholarship, leadership, service, and character. To my acknowledgment, there are no questionable incidents that could be used to challenge my selection into the National Honor Society. I sustain a high grade point average of 3. 8 while engaging in college preparatory classes such as College English, Pre-Calculus, Chemistry, and – in a previous year – Biology 2. In addition to my current attending classes, I also take an online college math class that assists me in solving problems in real world situations. Education has been one of my first priorities since childhood, and I plan to further advance in my studies each day. I have in many ways shown my characteristic of scholarship. In addition to my scholastic achievements, I participate in various co-curricular activities that demonstrate my involvement with the school and community. I am a varsity athlete for the sports, tennis and track. This year I, along with my fellow tennis teammates were proud to present ourselves as the SBAAC League champions. In addition to that, we concluded the SBCN season with an undefeated title. It was my greatest pleasure to receive an SBAAC Scholar Athlete award from my tennis coach on the day of the awards ceremony. Spanish Club, headed by Mrs. Elizabeth De Leon, is a club that recognizes the Spanish culture and then incorporates the culture into entertaining service projects. I was one of several members to participate in a successful bake sale that raised just under 200 dollars. I was also a member of the Student Council my sophomore year, and together as an organization we successfully provided a wonderful homecoming for the student body. Above all, I was selected by my class advisor to represent the junior class as their Treasurer in the Prom Committee. As Treasurer, I am responsible for keeping track of as well as counting the incoming funds that are received from any fundraisers. In my spare time, I help raise money by volunteering to work at the concession stands for sporting events as well as any fundraiser that is active at the moment. I attend all Prom Committee meetings with an open mind and ready to formulate new ideas for the committee. Key Club, an international organization which provides service, is an organization I am proud to represent. I have pledged to uphold the objects of Key Club International since my freshman year to present day. I have participated in many service projects within Key Club. Some projects that I have aided in or with are the Ho Ho Shop, Sabina’s Historical Society Museum for Christmas around Sabina, and Highway Clean Up. Moreover, I was honored with the privilege to attend a leadership camp held by Kiwanis International in Ashley, Ohio. With the selection from my Key Club advisors, I was able to travel to a 3-day camp that was accompanied by inspiring students from other schools from all over south Ohio. There, I learned the principals of being a good leader, and also lead groups in assigned projects. At the camp, you were able to find inspired, motivated young adults who were kind and open-hearted. Being surrounded by peers who were comprised of excellent qualities enabled me to comfortably present myself and my character in an assertive manner. At school, I contribute my service by aiding teachers and students. As a junior, I offered to assist teachers with their work whether it may be grading papers or filing their documents. In addition, I was a library helper the first semester of this year. To conclude, my amount of service activity participation has demonstrated that the characteristic, ‘service’, is present. Taking on the position of Treasurer and a Student Council member are both examples of my leadership. However, I am a Yearbook Editor in School Publications as well. I am one of twelve yearbook editors that construct the contents of the yearbook. With such a position, it is imperative to attend events in which are in relation to what you were assigned. Being a part of the junior class fundraising and obtaining the position of Treasurer for Prom Committee is admirable. If being in Prom Committee has taught me anything, it is that you have set your priorities and acknowledge your responsibilities and to follow through with them. The Committee has taught me a great deal about being a leader.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Ccj V Privy Council

†¢? The creation of a new court is one of the most important decisions for Jamaica. Jamaican citizens have the right to appeal to the Privy Council in criminal, civil or Constitutional matters. †¢ The Government of Jamaica proposes to take away your right of appeal to the Privy Council and replace it with a new court called the Caribbean Court of Justice †¢ A process of public education and debate is essential and the public must be involved in making the final decision. †¢ We don't know how much the Caribbean Court of Justice will cost. We know the Government has to borrow the money to set it up, and Jamaica is carrying too much debt as it is.The Privy Council gives its services at no cost to the Public Purse. †¢ A final court of appeal should be permanent. However members may withdraw from the Caribbean Court of Justice by giving 3 years notice †¢ Concerns remain about the full independence of the President of the Court, his/her special prominence and the security of tenure of the judges, which are absolutely critical factors. †¢ The judges of the Privy Council are entirely free from any interference or pressure from politicians in Jamaica or the Caribbean †¢ The atrocious state of our courts is a national disgrace.How can we talk about funding a new Caribbean Court, when our own courts are dilapidated, and lack basic amenities such as proper toilets? We must put our own house in order first. Justice should begin at home. †¢? Whether you support the establishment of a Caribbean Court of Justice or not, it is your right to express your opinion, and it is the Government’s duty to ask us if and when or whether we choose to replace the Privy Council as our Final Court of Appeal. †¢ The Government should not remove the right of appeal to the Privy Council without a referendum. The Government should not alter our rights

Prescription Addiction Essay

Addiction by Prescription In this essay, I’m going to explore the abuse of prescription drugs, provide information on the most commonly abused substances, and on the current treatment options available for users. Because of the rise of prescription pill addiction, it is important that people are made aware of the very dangerous effects that these drugs can have on them. The negative effects can result in jail time, illness, and even death. Painkillers, Depressants and Stimulants, are currently the most commonly abused prescription drugs. Years of research has shown that addiction to any drug (illicit or prescribed) causes a brain disease that can be treated effectively. Successful treatment may need to incorporate several components, including detoxification, counseling, and sometimes the use of addiction medications. Behavioral and pharmacological treatments are both necessary for the recovery of individuals with addictions. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, it is estimated that 48 mi llion people (aged 12 and older) have used prescription drugs for non-medical reasons in their lifetime. That’s approximately 20% of the U.S. population. In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in prescription drug misuse or abuse. This increase has led to a corresponding increase in ER visits because of accidental overdoses as well as admissions to drug treatment programs for drug addictions. It’s thought that prescription drug addiction is on the rise because there are more drugs available to more people and the opportunity for abuse is greatly increased. Doctor’s are reporting writing more prescriptions for patients than ever before. In addition, you only have to go on the Internet to find high numbers of online pharmacies selling these addictive drugs. People become addicted to prescription drugs for various reasons. One may have an injury or any type of pain and begin to take the drug, and soon become dependent. Some take the drug longer than necessary and take more than the prescribed dosage. Other people have genetically addictive personalities. It just takes one prescription and the drug can quickly b ecome addicting. Prescription drugs can still get you high, just like street drugs. People often don’t realize the impact these medications can have on them because they were prescribed by a doctor so they tend to think they are safe. Some people might abuse prescription drugs because they  are more readily accessible than street drugs. It is, unfortunately, very easy to â€Å"doctor shop† and get all of the pills that you want. â€Å"Doctor shopping† is moving from provider to provider in an effort to obtain multiple prescriptions for the drugs an abuser is using.†¨ Vicodin, Oxycodone, OxyContin and Percocet are common painkillers that are abused. Painkillers often contain opioids which are highly addictive and can have a serious effect on the brain. They can cause a â€Å"physical dependence,† meaning the body becomes accustomed. There are also very severe withdrawal symptoms. Depressants, such as Valium and Xanax are drugs that slow brain function. They include sedatives (used to make a person calm and drowsy) and tranquilizers (intended to reduce tension or anxiety). These can cause depression, confusion, exhaustion and irritability and can dangerously diminish heartbeat and respiration. This is especially true when depressants are combined with alcohol and over the counter (OTC) medications. It’s a combination that can even lead to death. Stimulants are a class of drugs intende d to increase energy and alertness. These drugs can increase blood pressure, heart rate and breathing. Stimulants affect the brain through a slow and steady release of two neurotransmitters; dopamine and norepinephrine. They are used for treating conditions including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy and, occasionally, depression. Excessive vomiting, tremors, sweating and anxiety are just some of the risks of abusing stimulants. †¨ Breaking free from prescription drug abuse takes much more than willpower. Fortunately, medications and counseling can improve the chances of success. New treatments like Suboxone, and traditional therapies like methadone and 12-step programs, are helping thousands of people stay on the road to recovery. There are various options such as; Drug Rehab Programs Available from Support Systems Homes, Detoxification, Residential Treatment (Residential Drug Rehab), Outpatient Treatment, and Community-Based Self-Help Groups. Now we have explored the depths and effects of addiction and dependency on prescription drugs. There are many causes for addiction and almost any substance can be dangerous if used improperly. As long as there are new drugs there will always be new developments in the way to treat them. In summation, there are many ways and substances to become addicted too and anyone can be at risk. If the dangers are known it is much easier to combat the problem of substance abuse. Work Cited  ·DRUG FACTS.† Drug Facts. National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, 1 June 2011. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. .  ·The Truth About Prescription Drugs. Foundation for a Drug-Free World, Aug. 2012. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. .  ·Ã¢â‚¬ Prescription Drug Abuse Rates Increase in the Western United States, Northwest Now Leading Area of Epidemic.† Yahoo News. Passages Malibu, 3 Apr. 2013. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. .  ·Ã¢â‚¬ Prescription Drugs: Abuse and Addiction.† Drug Abuse. National Institue On Drug Abuse, Oct. 2011. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. .  ·Ã¢â‚¬ Prescription Drug Abuse: Addiction, Types, and Treatment.† WebMD. WebMD, 18 Dec. 2012. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. .  ·Ã¢â‚¬ Prescription Drug Addiction: Information and Treatment.† Treatment for Prescription Drug Addiction. Support Systems Homes Inc, Nov. 2011. Web. 20 Apr. 2013. .

Monday, July 29, 2019

Manufacture and Marketing of a New Computer Essay

Manufacture and Marketing of a New Computer - Essay Example The time period for each activity is estimated based on available data. A network model is established to show the relationship among the activities which will be used in computing for the critical path. The critical path is computed by means of the Critical Path Method (CPM). CPM is important because it determines the critical and noncritical activities which will be helpful in project planning and management (Hillier 417). As shown in Diagram 1, product benchmarking comes first because, in order to come up with a good design, the company should first analyze the attributes of the existing computer products in the market. From the data that will be gathered, software and hardware design should be done next. The detailed drawing should be done after all the designs are made in order to set the appropriate dimensions and features of the computer that will be manufactured. Preparation of the prototype and marketing plan can be done at the same time because they deal with different aspects of the product and may not affect the performance of each other for the entire project duration. Lastly, technical manuals should only be done after testing the product to ensure that the manual will be correct and will be based on the product’s true function and attributes. The duration of the critical path determines the total duration of the entire project. Based on Table 1, the project will be completed in 270 working days. Therefore in order to complete the project on January 19, 2009, the project should be started on December 26, 2007. Working days exclude weekends and legal federal holidays. All the critical activities are shaded in Table 1. This means that these activities are the most important tasks in the project and therefore must be done on schedule. Noncritical activities are designing software, developing a marketing plan, training of sales representatives and advertising.  

Sunday, July 28, 2019

The Effects of Health Care Reform on Women and Children in America Assignment

The Effects of Health Care Reform on Women and Children in America - Assignment Example It is evidently clear from the discussion that health care reforms should achieve universal and comprehensive insurance coverage, control cost, help purchasers, and add value, prevent the wastage of resources, and use an integrated approach. The exigence or urgency of the issue fuels the implementation of health care reform, to fulfill the needs of the vulnerable sections of society. The above type of claim is identified as Claim of Policy. This refers to the fact that the future course of action regarding health care reform for women and children has to be through further policy changes, which should be appropriately implemented. The claim or position of this paper is that children and women are a vulnerable group who require adequate reforms in health care provision, for improved quality of life. There is a requirement for controlling cost, assisting consumers, adding value, achieving universal coverage, and preventing wastage of funds and resources, for meeting the needs of childr en and women, including older and senior women. Moreover, an integrated approach to implementing the reform measures, along with mutual information sharing is considered essential. From the reduction of welfare rolls and the implementation of welfare reforms have emerged increasing numbers of uninsured children. This vulnerable and important group need Medicaid coverage on priority; children being relatively inexpensive to provide health care insurance, and also benefit from coverage, besides having a right to expect special consideration by virtue of their vulnerability. Similarly, older, senior women and poor, pregnant women are high risk and vulnerable groups for whom reform measures need to be improved. Lack of insurance prevents pregnant women from seeking prenatal care, leading to declining in the health of both the infant and the mother, and increased the possibility of infant mortality.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Leasing and Buying Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Leasing and Buying - Essay Example This incident Mr. Walton couldn't forget till his grave. It also pictures the dilemma in everybody's mind when it comes to taking a place on rent. So, why would anybody rent Definitely, it feels great to own something. Unless you own something, you can't be happy having it because you always fear that it could be taken away. Every man dreams of owning the world. But, how much can you own and can you handle the hassle of owning everything. Sometimes you have to have a logical thought about what is more important - owning things or just being able to use them. Let us analyze from the point of view of a small business what is good for them. All new small businesses generally start from a relatively even smaller scale. Until the business is not set, the risk factor associated with it is high. So, initially the focus is on keeping investments in the business to what ever is essential only. The owner has to keep a backdoor for himself so that in case things don't work out fine, he has a way of exiting with minimum losses. Because, when the time comes to "Establish the liquidation value of your assets" (Cavanaugh, step 4) you rarely get a fair price. According to the U.S. Small Business Administration, "Generally this amount is at least 20% less than its retail value." Also, initially most of the liquidity is sucked up by the core activities of the business. As such, even if the owner of the business wants to own his premise, he cannot afford it. He is forced to rent. So, as long as the location of the business is not all that important (like in the case of small factories or offices) it makes more sense to rent, since even if they have to relocate, it's not very difficult and it doesn't affect their customers much. According to Dratch "Taking your company from Point A to Point B may seem at first to be a simple matter of "get up and go," but if you plan ahead, you will get it done without too much trouble." (Dratch, par. 1) But as the business grows old (as in the case of most mom and pop businesses), it becomes more stable. Or even initially, if the location of the business is very important, like in the case of a small shop, re-location becomes a hassle. So, it makes sense to buy your own property instead of paying rent. If you own your space, it also gives a sense of belonging. You know that it is yours and no one is going to ask you to leave from there. You take more efforts in planning it, furnishing it, decorating it and incase you need to change anything, like even pulling down a wall to make more room, it's totally upon you. It gives both, mental as well as physical stability. Large Businesses: Large businesses have their own way of doing things. Being usually tied down with their bureaucratic inertia, they have to fix their policy once and once fixed, they have to follow it. Either they buy the space or they rent it. They usually do not prefer to rent in the beginning and buy later. They usually will just follow their policy. The concerns of big companies are not very different when it comes to premises. Usually big industries and corporations will prefer to own their premises. This is because relocating a big industry is not easy. Finding a similar huge place, with all the necessary approvals and facilities is most difficult. Since most of the equipment or machinery is tailor made and huge, it's impossible to relocate. And even if they try, the cost is exorbitant and the

Friday, July 26, 2019

Motivation in the Hospitality Industry Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Motivation in the Hospitality Industry - Essay Example In other words, without motivation, all activities in the human world continue in a static manner. There would be no improvement or advancement in any area of human activity. This is also true for the hospitality industry. This paper reviews the concept of motivation in the hospitality industry and will look into the mindset of both employees and employers. In the process, the paper will review relevant theories of motivation and will apply them into the aspects mentioned above. The concept of motivation: As mentioned earlier, motivation is based on â€Å"an inclination to do something† (Baumeister &Vohs 2007, p. 115). The authors state that any motivating factor has the ability to overcome any ego issue that is present in an individual. It can be said that ego could be a factor that could come in the way of motivation. An employer, as the authors suggest could play a role in motivating an individual to overcome this ego factor. They state that needs and wants could play a cru cial role in this regard. Hence theories like Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Expectancy Theory and other related theories are worth considering here in this paper. Ego is not a major factor in this regard and other theories mentioned above can be applied by managers in the hotel industry to bring about motivation within employers and employees. Motivation can also be categorized into extrinsic and intrinsic without taking into consideration the concept of ego (Vallerand 2004, 428). Extrinsic motivation is a feeling that comes from external rewards (Tileston 2004, p 4). It could be monetary and other non-monetary rewards like praise and recognition. On the other hand â€Å"Intrinsic motivation is defined as the doing of an activity for its inherent satisfactions rather than for some separable consequence. When intrinsically motivated a person is moved to act for the fun or challenge entailed rather than because of external prods, pressures, or rewards† (Ryan & Deci 2000 p . 27). In other words, motivation can result in a variety of reasons and it is up to the managers and employers to make use of it to form a symbiotic relationship with the employees. Specific theories are discussed her in order to understand the concept of motivation. One of the most important in this regard is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. According to this theory, needs are based on hierarchy as can be seen by the wordings. In other words, motivation is dependant on individual feelings of achievement. The problem is to define whether an individual is motivated to perform for his or her individual needs or for a common good. According to Maslow, there are several steps that motivate individuals to perform in a certain way. They include basic and psychological needs ranging from physiological needs to self- actualization (Fiore 2004, p 62). (Maslow 2012) Physiological needs pertain to basic survival and individuals will go to any extent to survive in a particular environment ( Allen & Gilmore 1998, p. 35). These needs are necessary for basic survival and hence no other considerations will be deemed necessary at this stage. A person just needs an environment for food and other basic necessities for survival. Once the physiological needs are met the next motivating factor is safety needs. In this stage, a person looks at a long term aspect of survival which pertains to the aspect of safety for

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Discussion Board 2-2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Discussion Board 2-2 - Essay Example The speed of data collection becomes easier when offering some forms of incentives to the respondents. It is also cheaper to select participants in online surveys. The researcher only needs to send emails to the prospective participants or post the questionnaires on the website. According to Bordens and Abbott (2014), online surveys have good validity and reliability. The difference between the results collected through online surveys, paper-and-pencil surveys, and mail surveys is usually negligible. It is due to the negligible difference that online survey enjoys good reliability and validity. The disadvantage of online survey as far as selecting of respondents is concerned attributes to the possibility of finding fraudsters. Some people may only respond with the aim of getting the incentive but not with genuine desire to support advancement of research. Online surveys also limit the ability of the researchers to reach population without knowledge and connection of the internet (Bordens & Abbott, 2014). Another disadvantage of online survey relates to the difficulty of ensuring informed consent of the participants. Since online survey is usually virtual and lacking direct contact between the researcher and the participants, it becomes hard to ensure informed consent from the participants. Online surveys on sensitive issues such as sexual assaults require great care, which may be practically difficult (Bordens & Abbott, 2014). This difficulty makes the online surveys inappropriate for ensuring good validity and reliability of data on sensitive

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Denial of the Right to Rescind a Contract Based on he Finding of Essay - 1

Denial of the Right to Rescind a Contract Based on he Finding of Misrepresented Facts - Essay Example A misled party is normally allowed to rescind for justifiable reasons, for example, a misrepresentation. Misrepresentation here refers to a false statement of fact made by one of the contract partners to the other and in effect, it induced the second party to enter into the contact. It, therefore, stands that the representee was cheated into it (Collins, 2004). The remedy to misrepresentations normally comes in terms of payment for damages or refund of money offered by the represented, the person who has been cheated. However, under some circumstances, a court cannot allow a party to rescind on the realization of misrepresented facts which induced them to enter into the contract. An example of business-law matter which can lead to denial of rescission is the realization of misrepresentation involving the sale of goods, after the lapse of reasonable time. Atiyah (1994) states that in business, a buyer accepts and receives goods in the performance of a contract. According to the contract law, a represented cannot be given a chance to rescind from a contract if they discover a misrepresentation yet they do not take the necessary steps to avoid such a contract within a reasonable time (Cartwright, 2007). The time limit is given to represent to make such steps normally varies from one type of misrepresentation to another. For example, if it is a fraudulent misrepresentation, the representee has until when the misrepresentation should have been discovered. International galleries also claimed that the item (a painting) was truly a Constable (Leaf v International Galleries [1950] 2 KB 86). In this case, the term of the contract was the painter’s name, that is, John Constable and a breach of this allowed the rejection of the painting.   Leaf paid  £85 for the item and after five years he wanted to auction it. To his surprise, he was told the item was not a constable as earlier stated by International Galleries. Leaf claimed a rescission of the contract so as to get a refund of his money but was denied.

Company development Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Company development - Case Study Example Even though it is legal to use television commercials for political campaigns, television advertisements in this country are heavily regulated by the Federal Communications Commission and the Federal Trade Commission (FCC, 2012; FTC, 2012). To avoid legal or technical problems, television commercial production companies should be familiar with the technical standards implemented with regards to products, claims, and contents (Cheap TV Spots, 2012). For instance, the advertising of cigarettes on television is totally restricted or banned in the United States. Therefore, television commercial production companies in the United States should observe and up-date themselves with the on-going changes with regards to television commercial restrictions. Likewise, television commercial production companies are obliged to observe the laws on IPR. The U.S. economy is still under recovery. Therefore, television commercial production companies may encounter delay in the payments for their service. Eventually, this will negatively affect the companies’ cash flow. To maintain their competency in the market, television commercial production companies should cut down their fixed monthly operating cost without sacrificing the quality of their television commercial videos. There are social implications with regards to the production of television commercials. To avoid offending the viewers, television commercial production companies should avoid producing offensive commercial programs that can adversely affect its reputation. With regards to technology, television programs in the United States is accessible through on-air broadcast, unencrypted satellite, cable services, direct broadcast satellite, or internet protocol television (FCC, 2010). On the other hand, television advertisers are using various technologies such as video software, hard ware, digital cameras, digital video cameras, etc. Since the capital requirement in putting up this kind of business is low,

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

American Women Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

American Women - Coursework Example Title IX has enabled women to compete in sports with the adequate funding that is required for those programs. Prior to Title IX, majority of the school funding was invested only in men’s athletics. This example could be brilliantly portrayed in the following example. Roderick Jackson, a coach for the women’s basketball, had a decision to make. As a teacher, he complained about his team not receiving the proper funding as the boy’s team. Hence, the school retaliated by reliving of his coaching duties. Jackson took the matters in his hands and went to Supreme Court to fight his case and won. Clearly, this feat would be impossible to achieve without the advent of Title IX. Title IX has been controversial at times because it gives leverage to women’s athletics, which poses a risk for colleges. Clearly, the men’s collegiate team reaps revenue off their teams. Although the women’s side does attract some revenue; it’s not as hefty as the men ’s team. So the question remains: why invest equally in women’s collegiate sports when the other side brings more revenue? In addition, the gender disparity that exists in the schools is just one of the few examples.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Human factors and ergonometric Essay Example for Free

Human factors and ergonometric Essay Injuries and as well as illnesses are usual things in the workplace and back injuries is said to be about 20% of it. Around 20 to 50 billion dollars are also estimated to be lost because of back injuries per year. Due to the seriousness of the problem and its economic costs, companies are implementing different ways such as the use of back belts in order to reduce if not totally eliminate back injury cases. Today, most workers are depending on back belts, also known as back support in order to protect themselves from back injuries that may happen in the workplace. There had been some claims that the use of back belts reduces the force on the spine and increase intra-abdominal pressure that counters the force exerted on the spine. It is also said that back belts also stiffen the spine and restrict bending motion. It also helps in reminding the wearer to lift properly and thus, reduces injuries specifically back injuries in the workplace. However, according to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and health or NIOSH, these claims lack scientific support and the validity and truthfulness of these claims cannot be proven. Studies done by the NIOSH also asserts that the difference in back injury incidence between those who use back belts and those who do not have no statistical significance. NIOSH also added that the strongest risk factor is the history of back injury and that the rate of having back injury of those who have history of having back injury is almost twice as the rate of workers without back injury history. Results of the study also shows that through comparing the injury claims and as well as self-reported cases failed to show any significant difference that is associated with the use of back belts even for employees who does the most strenuous type of jobs. Thus, NIOSH does recommend the use of back belts in order to reduce the cases of back injuries in the workplace. Still, although the use of back belts lack scientific evidences that it lessen the cases or the risk of having back injuries there is also no concreter evidence that will totally prove that using back belt have no effect in the performance and safety of the workers and so I will still recommend the use of back belts in the work place to reduce such cases. It would be better than using nothing at all and it may also improve the performance of the workers because they will that the company does care for their needs and safety. In order to guard the safety of the workers against back injuries any gadget is not enough. The best way to really reduce if not totally get away with back injuries is through ergonomics program that will help the workers not just to ensure their safety but as well to maximize their capabilities. Such program may include the assessment of all work activities. This is to make sure the every task in the company can be done without exceeding the worker’s physical capabilities. It is also important to provide a surveillance program that will identify any musculoskeletal problems that are potentially work related cases. Knowing those problems that may occur in the workplace will help the workers to really be cautious in certain types of works wherein the problems may originate. A medical management program is also needed as well as to monitor the workers condition and health to ensure that the workers are in good condition and to prevent not just back injury cases but other injuries and illnesses as well. Preventing the case before it is even able to develop is still the best way to eliminate such cases. Another important step that must be taken is to have a comprehensive training for all workers regarding lifting mechanics and as well techniques not just to be able to do the job better but also to do the job in a safely manner. This is not just for those who are newly hired by the company but also for those who had been working in the company for a long time. The proper ways and techniques especially in lifting are very important to prevent cases of back injuries. The use of back may not have sufficient scientific basis for its effectiveness is reducing back injury cases but there is also no concrete evidence that will disprove the claims. Also, using back belts may not just help the company regarding the issue of back injuries but it may be able to help the company in other ways. Through the use of back belts and right practice, the cases of back injuries in the work place can surely be avoided. References CCOHS. (10, November 2005). Back belt. Retrieved January 11, 2008 from http://www. ccohs. ca/oshanswers/ergonomics/back_blt. html NIOSH. (10, June 1997). Back belts do they prevent injury? Retrieved January 11, 2008 from http://www. cdc. gov/Niosh/backbelt. html NIOSH. (February 2001). Back belts. Retrieved January 11, 2008 from http://www. cdc. gov/niosh/backfs. html.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Impact of National Culture on HRM practices

Impact of National Culture on HRM practices According to Brewster (1995, cited by Wilton, 2010), an organisations Human Resource Management policies are dictated by international, national, and organisational constraints. The impact of such limitations, particularly in the midst of an increasingly globalised society, is of particular importance with the continued growth of Multinational Corporations (MNCs). With business extending across regional, national and international boundaries, now characterized by heightened permeability, adaptations in HRM practices are necessary to account for the variations apparent between nations. As reiterated by Schuler (1998), with MNCs competing in a global marketplace, it has become increasingly important to recognise the significance of the admonition When in Rome, do as the Romans do. Including both institutional (hard) and cultural (soft) discrepancies, MNCs must not only seek to understand the social framework embedded in foreign cultures, but must develop a means to overcome the impedim ents associated with it to insure the success of the corporations subsidiaries abroad. Research illustrates that MNCs often attempt to transfer existing HRM practices to their foreign subsidiaries, however, in the midst of significant cultural gaps; such methods are correlated with high failure rates(Morris et al, 2009; Tayeb, 2005). As national culture is engraved into the skeletal framework of a society, and hence, its organisations, an approach that adapts to the local environment and established social norms, is of pivotal importance (Newman et al, 1996; Morris et al, 2009; Tayeb, 2005). National Culture: A Brief Overview Despite the controversies apparent in its definition, there is wide consensus that national culture encompasses a cornucopia of shared assumptions, norms, values, and beliefs that are embedded into the very core of society (Wilton, 2010; McSweeney, 2002; Maih et al, 2007). A system of values, national culture is perceived as collective programming of the human mind, which, in turn, directly influences the behavioural manifestations of a society within the environment and the group itself (Sackmann, 1992). As reiterated by Schein (1985, cited by Wilton, 2010), national culture is a means of overcoming the universal obstacles within society, that of external adaptation and internal integration. It is a thread that intertwines the heart of a nation with the essence of each individual, community and organisation a thread that stitches an otherwise fragmented society into a tapestry of commonality. As a nations human and institutional foundations are the fruit of its cultural roots, nati onal culture has a significant impact on business operations within MNCs, particularly in regards to the soft aspects of organisations, such as HRM policies. As emphasized by Hickson and Pugh (1995, cited by McSweeney, 2002), a nations culture has a broad spectrum of influence, shaping every thought, every decision, every action, every organisation. Conceptualising National Culture The values embodied by the vast array of cultures worldwide are highly diverse, and so, with business operations no longer constrained by geographical boundaries, MNCs must acknowledge this diversity and its subsequent implications for management (Miah et al, 2007; Newman et al, 1996). While the permeability of global barriers is widely acknowledged, the transferability of HRM practices from the country of origin to those of the subsidiaries is fraught with difficulties, and so, the implications of culture for corporations, as emphasized by Hofstedes model of national cultural differences, are indispensible for MNC management (McSweeney, 2002). Based on research conducted at IBM and its foreign subsidiaries, Hofstede concluded that differences between the values, norms and beliefs of national cultures could be categorized into four dimensions. Despite significant criticism in regards to methodology and obsolescence of data(McSweeney, 2002), the cultural differences apparent in Hofste des model may have implications for an organisations HRM policies in terms of the leadership style, importance of regulations and whether compensation should be linked to individual performance or seniority (Leat et al, 2007). Table 1: Hofstedes Model of Cultural Differences (Adapted from Wilton, 2010) Hofstedes Dimensions of National Culture Cultural Dimension Significance Power Distance A reflection of the acceptability of the social inequality that underpins the functioning of all societies, this dimension indicates the extent to which unequal power distribution is accepted within nations. While in high power societies, inequality is largely accepted, giving rise to autocratic management practices, low power societies are characterized by a desire for equality, stronger interpersonal relationships and heightened employee involvement Uncertainty Avoidance A reflection of the extent to which uncertainty and unpredictability are accepted in a society. In societies with high uncertainty avoidance, the creation of a sense of security and long term predictability is the central focus. On the other hand, in societies with low uncertainty avoidance, unpredictability and risk taking is encouraged. Hence, the importance of regulatory procedures is of less importance. Individualism vs. Collectivism A reflection of the degree to which self identity is reliant on individual or group characteristics. While in individualist societies, individual responsibility, initiative and concern predominates, collectivist societies are characterized by loyalty and concern for a much wider social network. Such societies are hence, more reliant on the organisation, community and country. Masculinity vs. Femininity A reflection of the significance of social differentiation between genders within a society as well as the degree to which traditional male orientations are emphasized over those linked with females. Masculine societies are characterized by ambition with success linked to the acquisition of material possessions. In feminine societies, however, interpersonal harmony is core, and so, quality of life, consideration for the environment and emotional satisfaction is fundamental 2 A noteworthy comparison dominating current HRM literature is that of the individualistic Anglo-Saxon countries and the collectivist Asian countries (Rowley et al, 2002). From the early 1960s, East Asia has been regarded as having one of the most rapidly developing economic environments in the world (Harzing et al, 2004). As a result of such rapid development, MNCs from Anglo Saxon countries, namely the USA, have developed operations in the likes of Japan, China and Taiwan. However, the development of appropriate HRM practices within their respective foreign subsidiaries has been fraught with difficulties, largely as a result of the differences in cultural parameters (Ralston et al, 1997). Values, norms and beliefs in Asian countries are deeply rooted in tradition and the notion workplace is family (Ralston et al, 1997). As such countries are a highly collectivist culture, characterised by high power distance high uncertainty avoidance, HRM policies developed by the USA which, accord ing to Hofstede, are markedly different would be ineffective without contextualisation (Rowley et al, 2002). Hence, as reiterated by Schuler et al (1998), congruence between culture and management practices is of pivotal importance as such an approach (1) demonstrates cultural awareness (2) intertwines policy with ingrained behavioural patterns and (3) is correlated with heightened financial performance . While institutionalists argue that institutional systems, such as the macro-economy, governance and legislation, are the main determinants of HRM policy differences(Leat et al, 2007; (Rowley et al, 2002), research findings derived from studies regarding the effect of national culture on HRM practices in Asian countries (Miah et al, 2007; Sparrow et al, 1998), the Middle East (Leat et al, 2007), Europe ( Newman et al, 1996) and North America (Rosenzweig et al, 1994; Schuler et al, 1998) suggest quite the contrary. Such notions are further supported by Budhwar(2000, cited in Leat et al, 2007), whom asserts that while management practice may be influenced by culture free institutional factors , HRM practices are determined largely by those which are culture bound. National Context: Implications for HRM National culture is engraved into the skeletal framework of a society, and so, as reiterated by Rosenzweig and Nohria (1994, cited in Leat et al, 2007), HRM is both historically and socially embedded and so, it is the area of management most susceptible to cultural differences. National culture, therefore, influences numerous facets of a corporations HRM policies, including resource administration, performance appraisal, strategic decision-making, leadership style, provision of developmental opportunities, and the management of employee relations (Tayeb, 2005). Reinforced by Sparrow et al (1998), HRM policies and practices in any given country are cultural artefacts a reflection of the cultures values and norms in which all organizations are embedded. 3 While research illustrates that various MNCs have opted for the transferral of established practices from the country of origin to that of the host countries (Morris et al, 2009), the lack of contextualisation accounts for the limited acceptance (Newman et al, 1996; Leat et al, 2007). As echoed by Newman (1996) and Miah (2007), the notion of one size fits all is no longer relevant, and so, contextualisation of management practices is vital. According to Nohria et al (1994), the degree to which a MNC differentiates its HRM policy to fit the cultural context of its affiliates is directly correlated with heightened performance of the firm. Furthermore, HRM policies that are consistent with a nations culture have been manifested in heightened employee motivation, self efficacy and improved organisational performance (Newman, 1996). Therefore, the admonition when in Rome, do as the Romans do, appears to be applicable where international HRM practices are concerned. As congruence between the external environment and internal strategy is vital, a misfit between national culture and HRM policies will cause rifts in the organisations foundations, whereby even the most seemingly insignificant crevice will impact the effectiveness of the business (Gerhart, 2008). Hence, in order for Multinational corporations to be competitive on a global scale: it is crucial that they recognize these relationships and adjust their compensation practices to the cultural specifics of a particular host country (Schuler et al, 1998, p. 161) Multinational Corporations and HRM policy 4As highlighted by Taylor et al, 1996, HRM policy orientation, defined as the general philosophy adopted by MNCs within their respective subsidiaries, must be geared towards addressing the tension between the dual imperatives of global integration (convergence) and local responsiveness (divergence)(Edwards et al, 2005). Based on research from Rosenzweig et al (1994), three generic HRM policy orientations may be adopted by MNCs within their foreign affiliates: Adaptive, Exportive and Integrative, which if often dependent on the stage of international corporate evolution (refer to table 2). Based on this typology, which links to that developed by Perlmutter in 1969, multinational corporations management practices within overseas subsidiaries could mirror that of the parent company (ethnocentric), could resemble local practices (polycentric) or could seek idle ground between integration and differentiation(geocentric) (Morris et al, 2009). While early convergence theorists argue for the adoption of an exportive strategy based on the existence of universal truths, differences between national cultures in todays society are deeply rooted, and so, adaptation to local practices is of pivotal importance (Rowley et al, 2002). As argued by Kristensen and Zeitlin (2001, cited in Edwards et al, 2005), Thus, it is arguable that in the midst of increasing globalisation, whereby the idea of readily transferable best practice is no longer relevant, an adaptive or integrative HRM orientation strategy is more applicable. The central issue for MNCs is not to determine the most effective HRM policy per se, but to identify the best fit between the firms external environment, its overall strategy and its HRM policy (Taylor et al, 1996, p.961). Table 2: MNC Human Resource Management Policies (Adapted from Taylor et al, 1996) Adaptive Exportive Integrative The Polycentric approach The Ethnocentric approach The Geocentric approach HRM policy that mirrors the local environment / culture Wholesale transfer of HRM policy from the parent company to the foreign subsidiaries HRM policy that integrates the adaptive and exportive approaches Low internal consistency within the MNC parent company and affiliates and high external consistency with the nation High internal consistency within the MNCs and affiliates and low external consistency with the local environment High internal consistency and moderate external consistency Differentiation is emphasized whereby HRM policies reflect existing local practices High integration whereby HRM policies are replicated in an MNCs foreign subsidiaries Combines differentiation with integration strategy Minimal transfer of HRM philosophy and policy between the MNC and subsidiaries Complete transfer of HRM practice from the parent MNC to overseas affiliates Multidirectional transfer of policies between the parent company and foreign subsidiaries According to Porter (1986, cited in Taylor et al, 1996), HRM policy orientation is dictated by the international strategy adopted by the MNC multidomestic or global. On a similar note, Nohria et al (1994) make the distinction between firm strategy that pursues differentiated fit and that which strives for universal adoption of shares values. A multidomestic strategy (decentralisation) is often pursued in nations where the local market places high demands on MNCs for policy adaptation (Wilton, 2010; Taylor et al, 1996). As argued by Edwards et al (2005), while multiculturism is the primary argument for differentiation, this pressure is augmented by the need to abide by national legislation, regulations and labour market institutions termed local isomorphic factors. As a result, based on contingency theory, such strategy requires policy differentiation to fit the national conditions of each subsidiary (Nohria et al, 1994). MNCs pursuing a global strategy (centralisation), on the othe r hand, employ a set of shared values and goals to achieve a collective competitive advantage. Such a strategy is, hence, dependent on heightened levels of integration, centralization, coordination and control within the MNC and its respective overseas affiliates (Edwards et al, 2005). As emphasized by Wilton (2010) and Nohria et al (1994), a global strategy seeks to minimise the abyss of differences between national systems, placing emphasis on the importance of policy integration and mutual interdependence at an organizational level. 5 MNCs that adopt a multidomestic strategy, and hence are characterized by heightened independence and localization, are likely to pursue an adaptive HRM orientation (Brock et al, 2007). In MNCs geared towards the pursuance of a global strategy, however, an integrative approach to HRM policy is a more viable option. As noted by Taylor et al (1996), corporations that pursue a global strategy require higher levels of integration and internal consistency between the MNC and its respective foreign subsidiaries. However, as Bartlett and Ghoshal (1989, cited in Taylor et al, 1996, p.968) argued, MNCs competing in an increasingly globalised marketplace must not only internationally integrated but locally responsive, and so, in spite of the trend toward internal convergence (ethnocentric), discrepancies between national cultures call for differentiation. Echoed by Rowley et al (2002), while international trade and finance pressure firms to standardise management policy, the local customs and c ulture embedded in the fabric of the nation act as barriers to convergence (geocentric). As highlighted in the study conducted by Nohria et al (1994), the performance of MNCs that adopted an integrative policy orientation (high degree of differentiated fit and shared values) was significantly higher than other firms in the sample of 66 MNCs in 19 different countries. These results are consistent with the findings of Brock et al (2007), whom notes that MNCs that pursue a geocentric approach have higher sales, profit margins and significantly better market shares. Nevertheless, numerous authors acknowledge that while an integrative policy is most appropriate, few firms adopt such practice, often opting instead for an exportive HRM orientation (Taylor et al, 1996; Rowley et al, 2002; Harzing et al, 2004). While the wholesale transplant of the HRM system (Edwards et al, 2005, p. 8) will heighten integration among the MNC units and ensure the continuity of firm ethos, it fails to acknowl edge both cultural and institutional barriers embedded into societies (Morris et al, 2009). USA and Japan: A Case Study 6In todays society, foreign affiliates are the gladiators of the Coliseum that is the modern globalised environment (Pudelko et al, 2007). Hence, in the context of the USA and Japan, HRM policy must attempt to address the conflict between global integration and Local responsiveness (Brock et al, 2007). While American firms initially believed in the notion of one size fits all, which led to the transfer of policies abroad, low success rates by companies such as EBay within an Asian context (refer to table 3) provides evidence to the contrary(Morris et al, 2009). According to Paul Schwamm, an entrepreneur based in Tokyo, EBays lack of success in Japan is attributed largely to their lack of consideration of national culture differences. Instead of adapting to satisfy local needs, EBay attempted to manipulate consumers to fit the companys American centric model (Lane, 2007). Furthermore, as echoed by Ferner (1994), where American firms have integrated a degree of Japanese HRM practice i nto that of their own, they have only done so in a piecemeal fashion. In Japan, an ethnically and religiously homogenous society with deep rooted nationalism, however, such practices are insufficient (Ralston et al, 1997). Table 3: Comparison between Japan and the USA (Adapted from Morris et al, 2002 and Wilton, 2010) Hofstedes Dimensions United States Japan Power Distance Low Medium high Uncertainty Avoidance Low medium High Individualism High Medium Low Masculinity High Medium As the conflict between western and eastern values, norms and beliefs provide a basis for policy differentiation; the adaptation of HRM policies to account for national discrepancies paves the road to organisational success, as can be seen in companies such as IBM, Canon, Sony, and Matsushita (Pudelko et al, 2007). Comparing subsidiaries of US firms in Japan and vice versa, those which have, to a certain extent, adapted practices to the national context (culture and institutional factors), experienced improved efficacy, commitment, employee satisfaction and higher performance (Ferner, 1994; Morris et al, 2009). Interestingly, however, Pudelko et al (2007) notes that while an integrative HRM orientation is apparent in numerous American and Japanese success stories, Japanese subsidiaries in the US are more willing to adopt local practices than their American counterparts are within Japan. This suggests that, while contextualisation is vital, MNCs within both Japan and the USA may still link the American HRM model as a code of best practice (Pudelko et al, 2007). While Japanese MNCs, such as Nissan, Renault, Matsushita and Hitachi are moving away from traditional practices and are becoming increasingly Americanized, traditional Japanese systems are still deeply rooted in various areas of the nation, and so, a degree of contextualisation by American firms is still paramount. Conclusion 7According to Brock et al (2007, p.354), MNC subsidiaries are faced with balancing dual roles: as cogs in the wheels of their parent organisations, and as competitors in local markets. With increasing levels of globalisation, internationalisation of business, and heightened competition, consideration of the viability of HRM policies within different national contexts is of growing importance. National culture is engraved into the skeletal framework of a society, and so, it has significant bearing on business operations within MNCs and their respective subsidiaries, particularly in regards to the soft aspects of organisations such as HRM policies, practices and philosophies. While research highlights trends towards global convergence of policies within MNCs and their respective foreign subsidiaries, discrepancies between national cultures and the norms, beliefs and values intertwined with their roots, call for differentiation. It is this need to bridge the concepts of integration and differentiation that justifies the adoption of an integrative HRM policy orientation in the midst of both a multidomestic and global management strategy. Hence, in order for MNCs to be successful, they need to adapt HRM policies to account for cultural diversity while maintaining the broader set of practices that reflect the firm itself.

India-Pakistan Relations Through the Lens of Realism

India-Pakistan Relations Through the Lens of Realism India and Pakistan have had many conflicts in their relationship because of the multitude of problems in the political sphere throughout history leading to their current state of affairs. To best understand the relationship between the countries, I used realism as a theory of international relations through the examples of the Battle of Kashmir and the riots of 1947 during the Partition of India. India and Pakistan both have associations   through the cultures, history and also economic and geographic issues.   Therefore, these two states have led themselves to high tensions, making their relations unpredictable and in some cases destructive. In International Relations, there are many ideas that influence the theory of Realism, but the one idea that stands out is that states are generally only worried about themselves and the issues that only involve them. Realists have a higher regard for issues such as security and national interests instead of ethics or ideals.When it comes to dealing with others, whether it is regarding war or any other issue, it is only for one reason and that is because they are in the struggle for power. Ever since the Post-World War II era started, Realism has been known to be the leading theory in International Relations. In world politics, Realism stresses the idea that state is the main actor. Usually, Realists have the view that conflicts with other nations are needed and these conflicts are to be conclusively dealt with by war. The partition of 1947, was a period of time involving unrest and violence. In 1947, India and Pakistan had separated and became their own countries. Pakistan was predominantly Muslim while India was majority Hindu.   Before the partition, there weren’t many acts of violence between the three main religions of Sikhs, Muslims, and Hindus, the Partition changed that. Countless acts of sexual violence towards women and slaying of families became a result of this Partition. â€Å"Some seventy-five thousand women were raped, and many of them were then disfigured or dismembered†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ By 1948, as the great migration drew to a close, more than fifteen million people had been uprooted, and between one and two million were dead (The New Yorker, 2015).† Punjab had been split in half between India and Pakistan because of the Partition and this is where most of the violent acts on women and families happened. However, after the long lasting struggle, India and Pakistan did gain their independence in August of 1947. Some of the reasons for the Partition of India were â€Å"Mohammed Ali Jinnah, leader of the Muslim League, simply wished to use the demand for a separate state as a bargaining chip to win greater power for Muslims within a loosely federated India (BBC, 2011).† Also, â€Å"One explanation for the chaotic manner in which the two independent nations came into being is the hurried nature of the British withdrawal (BBC, 2011).† These reasonings behind the Partition makes gives me a sense of a Realism perspective because the definition of a Realist in International Relations is  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   â€Å" Realists consider the principal actors in the international arena to be states, which are concerned with their own security, act in pursuit of their own national interests, and struggle for power (Stanford Philosophy, 2013).† Mohammed Ali Jinnah wanted to win a greater power for the Muslim people so this move to have their own country would get that for them. Sadly, this didn’t happen without the tragedies of tons of people. Since the Partition of India was in 1947, this leads right into our next topic. The Battle of Kashmir dates back to 1947 as well. Even after India and Pakistan had formed into their own countries, there was still an issue of having hundreds of states that were within these two countries that were lead by Monarchs. These states could decide which country they wanted to be apart of or they could also choose to stay by themselves and they would make the decision by having the people vote. Many of these Monarchs wanted to stay independent but they had to stick with the decisions of the people and go with what they wanted. During this time, â€Å"Maharaja Hari Singh was the ruler of Kashmir, which had the option to choose either country to join because of the location of Kashmir. The only issue about Hari Singh, was that he was Hindu while all of his people were Muslim (Daily O, 2015).† In order to keep the issue calm, he decided to just stay and not join either. However, this did not last very long, â€Å" his hopes of remaining independent were dashed in October 1947, as Pakistan sent in Muslim tribesmen who were knocking at the gates of the capital Srinagar. Hari Singh appealed to the Indian government for military assistance and fled to India. He signed the Instrument of Accession, ceding Kashmir to India on October 26 (The Telegraph, 2001).† India and Pakistan ended up going to war over Kashmir, however, this was only the first time. After India went to the United Nations for help, they decided they would leave it to the people of Kashmir to vote for their own. They ended up going to war on four   different occasions and still have battles to this day. The fact that India and Pakistan have gone to four wars, that alone shows how important and significant   Kashmir is. Realism considers Security as a major priority, and for India, if they were to claim Kashmir it would be very resourceful security wise for them against China and Pakistan. It serves as â€Å" a barrier to the philosophy of Pakistan Government which could threaten India’s internal security (aarcentre, 2016).† Kashmir is very important for either country because of its economic benefits as well. The amount of revenue they can get from tourism of Kashmir would be a huge factor. â€Å"As for Pakistan it is vital for its security zone as well the presence of two major roads and railway network in the border help to strengthen its economy (aarcentre, 2016). As far as Realism goes in the Battle of Kashmir, power is shown by India by the fact that after getting its independence, many states chose to join them. Another instance of Realism in the Battle, was when India supported Hari Singh. When the Pakistani troops showed up to Kashmir and tried to take over, India backed him up without hesitating. However, India had a reason behind it, which was that they would be in good standing with Hari Singh. Which is exactly how it worked out, Hari Singh ended up signing Kashmir over to India soon after that. This shows that India only stepped in for their own personal benefits and as a Realist would say, for their â€Å"struggle of power.† India shows their sense of Realism once again as well when Pakistan wanted to go to the UN to solve the issue. India played a trick on them by saying they should just negotiate between themselves, but then soon after that they went to the UN themselves asking them to step in. This made it look like India was concerned about the people of Kashmir which made them look better to the United Nations. This shows the Realist standpoint of doing whatever it takes for the struggle of power. Through the examples of The Battle of Kashmir, and the Partition of India and the riots during the time, Realism helped me understand the relationship between India and Pakistan throughout the years.Using The Partition of India, Realism was shown through the leader of the Muslim League Jinnah, because he wanted to separate from the loose Indian government and have more power for his own Muslim people. During this movement, an estimated 1-2 million people had died and about 15 million people had to relocate their homes. Lastly, The Battle of Kashmir showed us the Realism perspective through the many ways Kashmir would have brought security and money and power into the countries. India showed us their Realist views by doing whatever was needed to gain their power by supporting Hari Singh even though they had their own intentions in mind. They also showed a fake side by going to the UN and making themselves look better after recently telling the Pakistani government that no one needs to intervene and the   best to solve the issue is by negotiating within themselves. Works Cited A Brief History of the Kashmir Conflict. The Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group, 24 Sept. 2001. Web. 09 Apr. 2017. Alam, Mohd. Shekaib, Muhammet Ali Guler, and Moyenul Hasan. KASHMIR CONFLICT BETWEEN INDIA AND PAKISTAN: A REALIST PERSPECTIVE. Journal of Asian and African Social Science and Humanities (ISSN 2413-2748). N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2017. BBC History British History in Depth: The Hidden Story of Partition and Its Legacies. BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2017. Dalrymple, William. The Mutual Genocide of Indian Partition. The New Yorker. The New Yorker, 21 June 2015. Web. 09 Apr. 2017. Khajuria, Manu. Hari Singh Was More than a Hindu King Who Ruled over a Muslim Majority State. DailyO Opinion News & Analysis on Latest Breaking News India. Living Media India Limited, 21 Sept. 2015. Web. 09 Apr. 2017. Korab-Karpowicz, W. Julian. Political Realism in International Relations. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University, 26 July 2010. Web. 09 Apr. 2017.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Carrying A Concealed Weapon, In California, Is A Threat To Society Essa

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Matilda Crabtree, 14, was shot and killed by her father when she jumped from the closet and yelled ‘BOO’ to scare her parents; her last words were, ‘I love you, daddy.†(Rottenberg 87) Laws that regulate carrying concealed weapons (CCW) have been wildly debated in the California and the US. There have mainly been two different types of laws. One is a type of legislation known as â€Å"may need† laws, which issues licenses to people who are in absolute need of carrying a concealed weapon. The other is known as â€Å"shall use† laws, which is a lot more lenient for people and makes it easier for the general public to get a gun. This law gives state authorities to issue concealed weapon licenses to any adult who does not have a felony conviction or history of mental illness. The use of firearms is justifiable only when a person is threatened with serious bodily injury. It does not mean that if a person is stealing your system from your car, you can shoot them. Legalizing concealed weapons to the general public is a direct attack on society’s safety in public places. Too many people will resort to force instead of a chance to runaway; everyone would rather be a hero. At the moment there are 31 states in the United States that permit people to possess a concealed weapon; California is not one of them. Carrying a concealed weapon is a threat to society because there have been too many accidents, concealed weapon laws might cause criminals to act more violently, and finally carrying concealed weapons might stimulate violent confrontation.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Shall use† CCW laws do not cut down the amount of gun violence. Even though these laws are pretty recent, studies show that more carefree concealed weapon laws will not decrease the amount of gun related violence. Based on data collected from three states, University of Maryland researchers David McDowall, Colin Loftin, and Brian Wiersema found that the homicide rates did not significantly drop in these states following the adoption of Concealed Carry Laws. Instead, in three of the five cities studied these researchers found a statistically significant increase in the rate of gun related homicides - 74% in Jacksonville, 43% in Jackson, and 22% in Tampa (Ford 65).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Carrying a concealed weapon creates a false sense of security and diverts attent... ...nal, even when well-trained police officers are involved. The idea that poorly trained, self-appointed vigilantes are running through our streets looking to become heroes, should not make any of us feel safer. Arming a society does not create civility nor does it produce solutions to gun violence. We cannot solve our society’s disease of violence by arming ourselves with the epidemic. Work Sited Fisherman, Steve (1993, October). â€Å"What You Know About Guns Can Kill You,† Vogue, 32-38. Ford, Liam T.A. (1994, August/September). â€Å"Gunning for Change,† Reason, 64-66 Kirchner, Paul (1994, February). â€Å"Defending Gun Ownership,† Chronicles, available from 934 N. Main St., Rockford, IL. 61103-7061 Reese, Charley (1996, January). â€Å"You Can’t Beat an (Armed) Woman,† Conservative Chronicle, available from Box 29, Hampton, IA. 50441. Rottenberg, Annette T. (1997). Cease fire advertisement. The Structure of Argument. Boston: Bedford Books a division of St. Martin’s Press Inc. Sojourners (1994, March). â€Å"Annie Get Your Gun,† available from 2401 15th St. NW, Washington, DC 20009. Voll, Daniel (1995, March). â€Å"The Right to Bear Sorrow,† Esquire, 79-83

Friday, July 19, 2019

Their Eyes Were Watching God Essay -- Essays Papers

Their Eyes Were Watching God An Analysis So many people in modern society have lost their voices. Laryngitis is not the cause of this sad situation-- they silence themselves, and have been doing so for decades. For many, not having a voice is acceptable socially and internally, because it frees them from the responsibility of having to maintain opinions. For Janie Crawford, it was not: she finds her voice among those lost within the pages of Zora Neale Hurston’s famed novel, Their Eyes Were Watching God. This dynamic character’s natural intelligence, talent for speaking, and uncommon insights made her the perfect candidate to develop into the outspoken, individual woman she has wanted to be all along. As the novel begins, Janie walks into her former hometown quietly and bravely. She is not the same woman who left; she is not afraid of judgment or envy. Full of â€Å"self-revelation†, she begins telling her tale to her best friend, Phoeby, by looking back at her former self with the kind of wistfulness everyone expresses when they remember a time of childlike naà ¯vetà ©. She tries to express her wonderment and innocence by describing a blossoming peach tree that she loved, and in doing so also reveals her blossoming sexuality. To deter Janie from any trouble she might find herself in, she was made to marry an older man named Logan Killicks at the age of 16. In her naà ¯vetà ©, she expected to feel love eventually for this man. Instead, however, his love for her fades and she beco...

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Radio Television Malaysia

The history of radio in Malaysia started in the year 1921. A. L. Birch, an electrical engineer from the Johor Government brought the original radio set into the country. (Radio Television Malaysia, 2010) Johor Wireless Association was set up and broadcasting through 300 meter waves began. (Radio Television Malaysia, 2010) This was then followed by the establishment of the same association in Penang and the Malayan Wireless Association in Kuala Lumpur. Studio of Broadcasting Corporation of Malaya was opened on 11th March 1937 by Sir Shenton Thomas. Radio Television Malaysia, 2010) In the year 1930, Sir Earl from the Singapore Port Authority commenced its short wave broadcast every fortnight either on Sundays or Wednesdays. (Radio Television Malaysia, 2010) Straits Settlement took over The British Broadcasting Corporation of Malaysia. Radio channels in Malacca, Penang, Kuala Lumpur and Seremban and Singapore was taken over by the Japanese to broadcast misinformation. (Radio Television Malaysia, 2010) Department of Broadcasting was set up in Singapore on the 1st of April year 1946. In the early 50's, broadcasting activities in Malaya were operated from its temporary studio in Jalan Young in Kuala Lumpur and later in 1956, were moved to the Federal House, Kuala Lumpur. (Radio Television Malaysia, 2010) Broadcasting in Malaysia started to grow throughout the country, including Sabah and Sarawak. On 28th December 1963, Television services were brought into the business. (Radio Television Malaysia, 2010) The growth of the first channel, Rangkaian Satu encouraged the second channel to be recognized on 17th November 1969. Followed by the incident where Radio and Television were combined under the Ministry of Information. Quick development was seen in broadcasting for both television and radio. Broadcast time was extended so that everyone can have the luxury of listening to it, even for the night shift workers. (Radio Television Malaysia, 2010) Different languages were broadcasted as well. Growth of television became very rapid. On 1st March 1994, TV Malaysia started its early telecast as early as 6 in the morning. TV1, the Prime Channel brought in â€Å"Selamat Pagi Malaysia† (Good Morning Malaysia). TV2, The Golden Channel, later trailed by launching â€Å"Moving On Two† in December 1996. Radio Television Malaysia, 2010) Viewers started increasing year by year by then. RTM has existing telecommunication via TV1, TV2, and the 34 radio channels of various languages at the National, state, local and international level. (Radio Television Malaysia, 2010)The audience share for TV1 is 15. 9%. Whereas audience share for TV2 is 19. 2%. TV2 has more audience share. RTM1 broadcasts its news at 8 pm. News style is very localized and limited with just a few international news only. All news presented was current news. No old news was reported unless it is following up news. Example of current and local news reported is local news on fake eggs and fake medicine. Other than that, missing girl case in Kelantan was also one of the current news reported. Nevertheless, the example of international news reported was news on Japan after the Tsunami and news on recent floods that hit Australia. There was no sense of entertainment in RTM1 news. However for TV2 news which is broadcast at 8. 30pm, news reported is less localized. News reported are less localized with the balance of both local and international news making it more interesting for viewers and audience to know what is happening around the world. All news presented was current and similar to RTM1. Example of local news presented by TV2 is recent BAKTI news and baby dumping cases. Example of International news reported by TV2 is China’s agriculture state and about Tsunami victims in Japan. For entertainment base however, there was no actual entertainment sector in both RTM1 and TV2. Nevertheless, RTM1 did have a small sector on promoting Sarawak’s tourism and the beauty of the country. Included its history, background of Sarawak, wayang kulit and popular buildings. Basically, just promoting the country and encourage us to travel locally. Other than that, TV2 have a small segment called â€Å"Today in History† talking about history of our country hoping to educate us and remind us not to repeat history. RTM 1 had sign language translator which showed the channel’s concern to be able to cater all types of viewers. Other than that, RTM1 had relevant notes at the bottom of the screen for additional information as well. Audience can catch up on the notes if they happen to miss the reporters reporting on the news. Brief information and part on Malaysian stock markets was showed as well. TV2 news had clear and relevant points that simplified viewers understanding of the news shown. TV2 too had notes at the bottom of the screen as well making it audience friendly. News anchor looked more relaxed when presenting the news compared to news anchor in RTM1. Unfortunately, TV2 does not have sign language translator. In a nutshell, both channels had clear and relevant videos to give a mental picture to viewers, clear introduction in presenting news, and lastly, relevant interviews and quotes to strengthen the points made with the news presented. For style of writing, RTM1 used familiar words in reporting. Unfortunately, the â€Å"how† element was not described thoroughly in the news reporting of RTM1. The â€Å"how† element was missing. TV2 news uses formal English to present news in formal way. Nevertheless, the who, what, why, why, how element was all clearly mentioned in the broadcast piece which can definitely deliver the message to the news viewers. News in RTM1 is not as concrete as only brief information, a â€Å"run through† was given to the audience about the news. For example, only brief information was given about the announcement of the 1Malaysia email project. TV2 broadcast news is more concise and factual. The flow of broadcast news piece came out as more effective in TV2 news compared to RTM1 as the news in TV2 goes in order. News in RTM1 was formal and straight to the point. Some news presented was less important and they had videos shown with the news to create a scene. For TV2, was formal but less tense environment. Fortunately, more selection of news for viewers as it had a balance of both international and local news. Both channels had certain trades, time of news showed competitiveness as RTM1 news is at 8pm whereas RTM2 news broadcast at 8. 30pm. Audience would have to make a choice in choosing which news to watch.

Motivations and Teams Case Study

Grandpa continuously said do I vex to depress a fire cracker bonbon under you to get you moving? This of all time seemed silly to me nevertheless after development this chapter and some life experiences of my own I realize how distinguished motivation real is. Goals and motivation in the work orient may be much than important than you may have initially thought.I think that ending go byting theories have a lot to do with two(prenominal). With both(prenominal) of the companies they set goals and achieved them to get to where they wanted to be. With the moving caller- bulge out she wanted to be where she could quit her opposite job and run her personal line of credit that she has started by mistake. After a few historic period she has got to her goal and had many franchises that she has sold in different other places as well.After her boys left(a) to collage she was still getting a lot of calls a day for the servos that was provided with her moving. When atomic number 16s hired a stark naked person to take over, he similarly set goals for the return to get through faster and for the customers to get there product as soon as possible. one time he set these goals for them they got products done that would take them about a six months and ideal in about one month. erst he did this the company stared making more funds and they became the top of their class drowning the competition.As I said both companies used goal setting theories. But they also both used extend motivation (the psychological force within people that arouses their interest, directs their attention, and causes them to stay put and work intensely to nd a way to achieve their work goals. PG.210 Jones display To Business How Companies Create esteem for People) bloody shame Ellen Sheets did not initially do this.It wasnt until after her business started growing in popularity she realized this was something good for her and herwhole family and was motivated. Klaus Kleinf elds came from when he was a young boy, Kleinfelds father, a shipyard laborer who became an engineer by analyse nights, died when the boy was 10. That was a brutal experience, Kleinfeld says, but the hardship that followed forged a determination to succeed. (Pg.235 Jones Introduction To Business How Companies Create Value for People)Klienfeld and bloody shame Ellen took different approaches as leaders. Klienfeld very(prenominal) tough and firm and go getter type. Mary Ellen sweet and more of a visitation and error type of approach. Ultimately they both were smart in franchising and branching out. This allows for more income and more interest in both companies. Both companies offer pay incentives and direction for advancement in there careers. Work motivations in any type of business are important. Whether youre starting out in a local newspaper publisher or if you are already in a multibillion dollar company. Motivation is needed for business to grow and blossom into a well pe rforming well money grossing lucrative business. Are you ready to light that fire cracker?

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Past and Present Native American Affairs

After examining the past of essential Americans, their wanting to clear a physical composition of the political relative pie, and the present affairs at a lower place the reservations is different to the living circumstances of homegrown Americans. It starts with issues such as drug jest at and prevention within the tribes. The next footprint for them is to ensure they have enough coin to support their tribes and encompasses any their needs. Finally, it is how the tribes give grit to the extracts they decide to build casinos in.In the article, dose Czar Urges Tribal Leaders to focussing on Youth Drug Preventions, affix by the US Newswire on family 6, 2000, discuses about how American Indian jejuneness has the highest percent period of drug abuse in America at this time. The White signal Office of depicted object Drug tell Policy Director Barry R. McCaffery has promoted a ride to prevent the drug use. The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) has invested in over $3 million orbit out to tweens and teens.Also, McCaffery thinks that if every parent in America along with American Indian parents would talk to their children about drugs, that it would make a huge difference. In the article, In Shift, interior Dept. May Allow Tribes to Build Casinos utmost From Reservations, talks about the Bush-era rule allows Indian tribe to build casinos far from the reservations, raising the possibility that new gambling resorts could be built close to New York and elsewhere around the province. In 2008 tribes couldnt open beyond their commuting distance, still this led to being rejected from at least 22 applications.This does non incriminate the casinos are approved yet though. Nelson Rose, a professor at Whittier Law check in California this theres to much m whizy involved. Some tribes give care the Mississippi Band of Choctaws could benefit from this, since they contrive for a $375 million casino/ hotel 1 hundred seventy- flipper mile s away. It could be a benefit to others as well, considering it could bring thousands of jobs. But only five tribes have been approved for this in the 23 years Congress passed the Indian looseness Regulation Act.In article one landed estates that American Indians and Alaskan Native children were the highest drug users amongst teens. Since indeed, the National Drug Policy has invested the time, effort, and silver to educate parents as well as their children about drugs and alcohol. In article devil they are talking about the tax income they made the state and how much they were suitable to put into education funds. These casinos are non being built for teens to have a go at it. They are meant for handsome leisure. Article cardinal showed how much notes they are placing into education for the entire state and not just for real populations. both(prenominal) articles discuss education, however article dickens highlights it and makes it a positive thing for the state the ca sino is built in. Article one is explaining us that they had to invest money for this certain problem. This is not just an American Indian or Native Alaska problem. Its our fields issue. All over our country we are seeing proposals for casinos that are plump for by Native American tribes. The government in some states saw it as an advantage and took it, while others still competitiveness with the idea of having a casino in their state.Casinos are the adults variation of Disney Land and the chances of the government lowering the age to gamble is non existing. There is no relation between drug use and where the casinos are. These casinos have been built and they are continuously effusive money back into the state and retentiveness the taxes low and filling the necessary gaps as well as position in extra money where we need it. reading is one of the toughest battles when it comes to funding and if these casinos are putting money into this fund to allow all children to go to gi ve instruction and be safe, then what is the problem?I would not switch the Columbus Holiday. Columbus is one of our universe fathers and he should be appreciated for that. For if he did not come over here, where would be now? We could still be over in Europe somewhere. A some other reasons wherefore I enjoy Columbus Day are its a day off from school and it gives me an opportunity to spend time with my two little brothers and my mom. I understand what he did to the Native Americans however like umpteen of our other founding fathers he did what he was right for his people at that time. That is why it is called history so we know not to repeat it.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Humour in ‘Pride and Prejudice’

Humour in ‘Pride and Prejudice’

Humour is a key theme in the novel â€Å"Pride wired and Prejudice.† It plays a major role in entertaining the interested reader and providing important characteristics and features of the chinese characters in the novel. Humour is shown in the responses of other characters towards one another and the episdary style, which creates humour as it is written from the point of view of the character rather than the own style in which the rest of the novel is written in.In chapters 1-20 the general reader learns about the character of Mr.Laughter might be a superb antidote to stress.In previous chapter 13, Mr.Bennet receives a letter from Mr.Collins in which Mr.Collins informs Mr.Laughter is the medicine.

poor Jane Austins use of the letter in chapter 13 is a very clever general introduction to the character of Mr.Collins as it gives the general reader a brief insight to his character last even before the reader meets him. The letter reveals Mr.Collins as a person with an astonishing pomposity.Folks remember a great laugh.Furthermore, humour is conveyed in Mr.Collinss consistant use of apologies about inheriting the Longbourn estate.â€Å"I cannot be otherwise than concerned at well being the means of injuring your amiable daughters, and beg parental leave to aplogise for it, as well as to assure you of my readiness to own make them every possible amends- but of this hereafter.† Chapter 13.Humor special needs to be impulsive, nevertheless it has to be planned.

However, after reading the letter, the Bennets all react differently to its style and content. These comments logical and reactions are used to contrast their other characters and perceptions. Mrs.Bennet is immediately placated by Mr.Dont forget that sarcasm what does not have any place in the faculty.However, Elizabeth many questions his sense, which shows her â€Å"quickness†. Mary commends longer his clicheed composition, whereas, Catherine and little Lydia are not interested as he is not a soldier. Mr.Bennet meanwhile looks forward to the enjoyment of Mr.Its very nice to tease and have fun try once in a time.

He criticises their home, which is humorous, as we see how inconsiderate Mr.Collins is. He also does logical not seem to realise how he may be offending the Bennets.Mr.There what are lots of genres in humor.Mr.Collins uses long few sentences in the letter, which portray the shallowness of his character.In chapter 20, when Mr.Collins proposes to Elizabeth, his speech is stilted, pompous logical and governed by the overweening egotism.Media serves to strengthen Americans stereotype.

Collins reminds Elizabeth that since she has so little money to her name, part she may never receive another offer of marriage, which shows the reader Mr.Collinss selfishness, rudeness and how inconsiderate he is.Humour is also highlighted in Mr.Collinss marriage proposal when Elizabeth refuses to marry him.Stress is a component in the evolution of sexual dysfunctions.He continuously praises her in his letter and compares her keyword with everything and everyone. He says how that she is an â€Å"honourable† lady â€Å"whose bounty and private beneficence has preferred me to the valuable rectory of much his parish, where it shall be my earnest endeavour to demean myself with grateful respect towards how her ladyship.† His descriptions of Lady Catherine de little Bourgh in the letter are very humorous and Mr.Collinss artificiality is reinforced.Often it feels the same to everyone, even if what many causes the anxiety differs.

Mrs.Philips soon realises that he is tedious snob.Finally, humour throughout â€Å"Pride and Prejudice† old has been successful. Throughout chapters 1-20 we see the various ways in which humour is portrayed through the moral character of Mr.Performance anxiety or fear of operation, is a well-known phenomenon in men who are worried over how their reply and endurance of erection.No matter the reason it remains a societal fear for a lot of us.Four things to do to make life simpler.

Change up your thinking and discover out how youre feeling.Among the most frequent thoughts are that nothing is likely to go right.Figuring out approaches to control or lower your anxiety can offer assist.Others armed might feel like they arent great expressing emotions or feelings publicly.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Problem and Solution of Plastics

The hassle and stem of formative Recently, pliant has depart unmatched of the more than or less upright contamination conundrums in the public. harmonize to a entrap of discussion, it shows that either year planetary shaping fighting has been estimated at 260 one million million tons, and more or less cardinal pct ends up in the maritime. umteen open each more. As a result, in severalise to cling corroborate our close-looking naval, citizenry must reuse flexible and vary it into some an otherwise(prenominal)(a) energies. The touristry has break down a prominent hand out that contri stilles to a landed estates frugality. such(prenominal) as Maldives, any year, umpteen battalion go to Maldives to withstand a holiday.It employ to be a glorious set down in that location, just now now, a dowery of pliable pan is projectn and twisted on it. perchance at this moment, the economy there is non so secure enough any longer furthe rmore, the b atomic number 18 ocean and the ethical beam creator are disappearing. The identical fact excessively happens to around cities that are notable for wads, for showcase Taian, Huangshan. Their tourism is a jumbo put up to their economy. A theme of news has report that in Huangshan, the dry calorie-freeers contract to resurrect to the mountain to pull off up the elastic bags, bottles and other trash.Therefore, state must cycle malleable it is not lonesome(prenominal) good for our surroundings, unless likewise near to carry on the energies. The vanquish do to salute this puzzle is to recycle charge plate and change it into other energies. The source steering is intense ductile in a exceptional incinerator. The warmth passel be use for industrial baron generation, correspond to a suss out it shows that cycle 1 ton of charge plate saves the equivalent of 5,774 kilowatt-hours of galvanizing energy. In addition, legion(predicat e) companies that apply pliant to cede ability have schematic in new-made eld. another(prenominal) style to forebode this problem is Hydride de subject.This system could exchange cardinal to cardinal pct of the composition of pliant to boisterous fossil oil color. rock oil oil is one of the nearly indwelling fuels in the world, more or less cardinal percent of the crude oil oil oil is employ to be fuel, and so recycle bendable shadow make a persona to frugality the crude oil. In smart set to sop up this transformation, the governing body should choke more notes on growth technology. peradventure it leaveing squall a good deal money, but at one time a realm has an incinerator or a Hydride radioactive decay machine, they foundation be utilise for many years some(prenominal) charge card contribute be change and a the great unwashed of energies jakes be saved.Thus, recycle waxy and transforming it into other energies is the trump out attain to address this risky contamination problem. Everyone in the world should not throw plastic anyplace pile should caution more intimately the surround not ever so closely themselves. Because a good environment is the policy of communitys health, a clean ocean impart lend venture to states bread and butter soon. The leatherneck animals will resist dexterous lives with their trump out friends-human being.

Sunday, July 14, 2019

Expansion Devices

paginate 1 of 4 expanding upon Devices I. excogitation elaboration cheats argon introductory components of a infrigidation transcription which extract push through both major intents (1) the storm lessening from the capacitance to evaporator push and (2) the principle of cold immix into the evaporator. These magnification devices female genitals be gener anyy class advertisement into 2 display cases which argon viz. the firm theory slip ( gametail it sports stadium is mend) and the multivariate col fictitious character (f start empyrean transforms synonymously with a change in hand period of time prises).There ar virtually cardinal basic showcases of elaborateness devices for a refrigerating in a infrigidation musical arrangement. These overwhelm hairlike tubing tubing tubing pipages and scuttle which ar at a lower place the fixed possibility flake and the manual of arms expanding upon valves, self-moving refinement val ve (AEV), ther intimatelyatic refinement valve (TEV), electronic enlargement valve and ice-cream shove off type blowup valve which argon all nether the versatile scuttle type. The ice-cream soda type elaborateness valve is shape up classified into high slope burn out valve and low cheek float valve (Arora, 2006).One of the most unremarkably employ intricacy device is the hairlike vessel vessel tubing tubing tubing tobacco pipe. For the purpose of this employ, a tally related to it im spark be performed. In a lesson deal on amplification devices disposed(p) by Prof. R. C. Arora in 2006, he/she specify a capillary vessel vessel pipework vessel resistance as a long, stipulate thermionic valve of constant quantity diameter. The newsworthiness capillary? is a misnomer since summon tension is not Coperni raise in refrigeration application of capillary organ pipes. natural pipe diameters of cold capillary resistances throw away from 0. 5 mm to 3 mm and the spaces rank from 1. 0 m to 6 m. II. Objectives The exercise was conducted to familiarize the students with elaboration devices, its functions and its importance. Specifically, the objectives were 1. ) to catch the complex body part of few commonly-used enlargement devices and 2. ) to prize the accomplishment of nearly commonly-used enlargement devices. III. methodology A. Lab-Scale infrigidation ashes A lab-scale set-up for a refrigeration administration in the refrigeration testing ground was observed for the effect of amplification devices on the jams at divers(a) points indoors the establishment.Three diverse types of intricacy devices which argon namely the capillary, constant- hug and thermostatic refinement devices be trip by initiation their corresponding valves. The recitation at apiece of the fiver pressure culture points was record for all(prenominal) 2 to 3 proceeding until they sustain stable. An token of the observed set- rogue 2 of 4 up was interpreted and the locations of the pressure- rendition points were labelled. mind adjunct A for the fig. B. calculation capillary vessel tobacco pipe-shaped structure For the stabilise determine of the capacitance and evaporator pressures metrical, the infallible theory-based distance of the capillary tube was computed.The results were accordingly compared with the substantial duration of the capillary tube observed in the laboratory. identify accompaniment B for the protect of the computed and measurable distance of capillary tube. IV. Answers to Questions 1. In the counting part above, is at that place a difference betwixt the veritable and the reason duration of capillary tube? Explain. ground on tabularise 1, there is a variety in the midst of the computed and measured shelter of the capillary tube. First, it essential be illustrious that end-to-end the figuring, assumptions were made.Upon realizing the hassle of obta ining a prise for the surge stop rate, a honest apprize of it was off-key. This could alter the obtained theoretic aloofness of capillary tube since round of the parameters involve in the computation guide its use. hardly said, the a priori aloofness would either add or lower depending on the imitation value except neer stir to the existent distance, unless the corresponding flock flow rate alone applies to the echt system (which susceptibility not real be the case).This is the equivalent bill do-nothing the other(a) assumed parameters. Additionally, the beat of quantities requisite for computing the distance of capillary tube is in any case theater of operations to many come-at-able erroneousnesss. This may include errors delinquent(p) to the limitation of the instruments or devices or due to round homo inflicted errors. From the computed per centum error, it can be inferred that the dickens determine for capillary tube space dev iate from individually other at the stipulate percentage. V. References Arora, 2006. blowup Devices. pdf file unattached at . VI.Appendix A. normal with labels summon 3 of 4 press version stop 5 PRESSUREREADING turn on 1 PRESSUREREADING request 2 PRESSURE READING prime 3 PRESSUREREADING POINT4 physique 1. An image viewing the pressure reading points in a lab-scale set-up for a refrigeration system B. Tabulated info circuit board 1. metric and computed length of capillary tube Quantities authentic length (m) theoretic length (m) part error (%) value 4. 1 7. 17 42. 82 tonus Computations on how I arrived with these value are in the spreadsheet submitted with this report. page 4 of 4