Saturday, August 31, 2019

Religious Believers Understand More Essay

To discuss this statement first we must look at the definition of understanding. Religious believers and scientists would probably differ in their definitions and therefore disagree from the beginning. A religious person would perhaps say that understanding the world means knowing how to be a good person, how to live a good life and fulfill God’s plan. A scientist would probably disagree, saying that understanding the world is having a wide knowledge and good comprehension of how the world works including theories like evolution and understanding why and how things occur. Another slight problem with this statement is its implication that one cannot be a religious believer and a scientist when in fact there are many religious scientists who seem to have science and religion existing harmoniously in their lives. If we are defining understanding as understanding how to live a good life, then I believe that the Bible and Religious Believers do understand more about the world than Scientists do. Religious Believers have a better understanding of how the universe and mans place in it was set up, but it’s hard for people to understand correctly because it’s not in scientific terms, it’s in myths and metaphors. You can’t see it with our available scientific instruments, it’s something you experience. Religious Believers have direct guidance from their Holy texts, e.g. for the Jewish faith, the Torah on how to live their life. They are taught, by the Ten Commandments, that they are not to steal, not to commit adultery and not to murder. One criticism of scientists is that a number of assumption are made to give parameters to an experiment. Also perception can be fallible, as we expect to see things, so we see them. We don’t expect to see them, so we miss them out. In response to this, in the parable the invisible gardener; where the religious believer trusts that the gardener came but couldn’t be seen and the other (scientist) believing that there couldn’t be a gardener because there was no empirical evidence of this. This shows that even though there was no evidence of the gardener or God they still hold a belief, whereas the scientist had to be proven. Some claim that believers only want hope. Religious Believers hope for the return of their â€Å"invisible gardener†, while New Atheists (Richard Dawkins and his followers) have no expectations of a new life after death, thereforelive their lives without fear of an almighty God smiting them down. In this situation, one could argue that the Religious Believer is playing it safe, however they still understand the world better, in many cases they see it as an almighty being’s creation. In conclusion, I believe that, although Scientists have proof of the age of the earth, and that they have proven many facts of the Earth, They do not have as good guidance as Religious Believers do on understanding life.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Dark flat wilderness Essay

In order to find out how Dickens created tension in chapter 1 of Great Expectation, it is necessary to know why he had to keep the tension present through out the chapter in the first place. Like most of his other stories, Great Expectations was published in serials. It was important for Dickens to leave some anticipation in the end of each chapter so that the reader would buy the next edition of the magazine. Born in 1812; Dickens family was constantly in financial trouble. In fact, Dickens’s father spent time in a Debtor’s prison when Charles was twelve years old. During that time, he had to work in a Blacking warehouse. It was a traumatic experience he had truly hated. It was clear that his unhappy childhood affected his writing, many of Dickens’s work dealt with the injustice children experienced. In Victorian Britain, children of the poor were treated badly. Orphans were very common and the streets of London were filled with them. A few got jobs like chimney sweeping, the work was dirty and dangerous. their employers were also constatly abusing and exploiting them. This was if they were lucky. And what happened to the unlucky ones? Well, they lived on the streets and resorted to crime just to keep themselves alive. These children were exposed to all forms of danger. Along with criminals, orphans were in the bottem of society. With no one to care for them, these children very very vulnerable. The fact that Pip had no parents is revealed early on. This captured the especially Victorian reader’s sympathy immediately because they knew what happened to orphans. The readers were particularly worried that a little boy like Pip was all alone in a graveyard. â€Å"a bleak place overgrown with nettles†. Obviously nobody cared for the sad, lonely graveyard, just like the fact that no one cared for Pip. Death surrounds him; Pip’s dead brothers were buried beside their parents. The readers are now starting to guess what’s going to happen. Because Many children died early in Victorian times, it was entirely possible that Pip would be joining his brothers very soon. Surrounded by the â€Å"dark flat wilderness† there was no one to help Pip in this isolated place. Pip was suddenly â€Å"growing afraid of it all and beginning to cry† as â€Å"the distant savage lair from which the wind was rushing† The wind may have served as a personification of a creepy voice. Something was definitely wrong. This setting creates tension for the reader because they expect something bad to happen, tension is created through suspense. Although very young, Pip had plenty of experiences with death but he had a limited ability to cope with what had happened. The evidence for this was when he had cried for no apparent reason. The odds were piled against him. Even the weather is bad, with the wind rushing. When Magwitch was first introduced, we were not given a warning. He just â€Å"started up from among the graves† and threatened to cut Pip’s throat. The fact that Magwitch was a convict was made clear by the â€Å"great iron† on his leg. The reader now has a very good reason to be afraid. The tension is growing because we are now scared for Pip. Dickens described events in a broad ways to begin with. The first three paragraphs were descriptions, nothing really happened in these first few paragraphs. Gradually as we learn more about a character and his capabilities, we begin to expect an event, or guess what might happen. In Magwitch’s case, when he said â€Å"keep still, you little devil, or I’ll cut your throat† we now know that Magwitch will scare Pip into obedience. They were in a graveyard, which was a symbol of death. Magwitch’s fearfulness is inflated because he is seen through Pip’s eyes. Because the reader sees all of this through the eyes of a child, the descriptions of Magwitch is exaggerated since Pip had a limited of the world in general. Because a child sees things differently as they have known fewer people, each person they meet is scrutinized according to their short pasts. A child’s world is much smaller. Because Pip was used to doing what he was told, He had agreed to help Magwitch because he was unaware of the dangers. This may mean that Pip could get himself tangled up in a criminal activity and be punished for it even if his intentions were good. The readers will feel that is very unfair, and naturally be worried and then wonder what’s going to happen next. Dickens secured the reader’s interest by playing on their sympathy. The readers can’t feel completely at ease knowing it was entirely possible for Pip to get into at awkward position in any time since children are less cautious. Innocence and trust is a hazard of childhood. Pip was both innocent and trusting. The story was set 20 miles away from the sea in the marsh county, this indicates that Magwitch had escaped from the hulks. The hulks were old ships that were literally falling apart. They were used to relieve the overcrowded prisons. But even that was not enough. Between 1787 and 1868 around 160,000 were transported to Australia, the conditions were so appalling that victims of the crimes appealed for the robbers. It was a time when the rich were very rich while the poor led a life near slavery. In fact many people had to steal just to keep themselves alive. The punishments were harsh poor petty crimes. People were hung for crimes that would only get them a fine today. The fact that Magwitch was cunning enough to escape show us that he was no ordinary criminal. Magwitch had everything to gain and nothing to lose and he would do anything necessary not to be recaptured. Pip was already scared for no reason, Magwitch had the upper hand. Magwitch intimidates Pip over and over again with threats. Now he had not only physically overwhelmed Pip, he had also controlled Pip emotionally. He invented a horrible young man and makes Pip think that he’s helping him. â€Å"I find it wery hard to hold that young man off of your inside† Now Pip also has the young man to be scared of.  Structurally, writers often use simple short sentences when building up to a climax, often with one or two word sentences, although this is not the case here. In the first physical description of Magwitch Dickens divided a sentence into little bits. â€Å"A man who had been soaked in water, and smothered in mud, and lamed by stones, and cut by flints, and stung by nettles, and torn by briars; who limped, and shivered, and glared and growled; and whose teeth chattered in his head †¦Ã¢â‚¬ Ã‚  This has a similar effect as to using very short sentences to create tension. The word â€Å"and† was used nine times in this sentence. The reason Dickens didn’t use any other conjunction as it would make the sentence more flowing and therefore losing the intended effect. Tension is also felt in the detail. It’s the small things that would not normally be noticed or commented on that the reader is forced to notice. In the quote above, we are flooded with descriptions of Magwitch. The tension created in the first chapter of Dickens’s Great expectations relies on the reader’s sympathy for Pip and the frightfulness of Magwitch. The chapter’s gloomy setting also obviously creates apprehension. Although there are times when the readers are almost comfortable, Dickens always leaves seeds of anxiety lingering. Overall, Dickens maintains the tension by never letting the readers feel completely sure on what’s happening next.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Far from the Madding Crowd Thomas Hardy Essay

The following is a summary of critical viewpoints on Hardy’s Far from the Madding Crowd. See also Thomas Hardy Literary Criticism, Thomas Hardy Short Story Criticism, and Jude the Obscure Criticism. INTRODUCTION Long considered one of England’s foremost nineteenth-century novelists, Hardy established his reputation with the publication of Far from the Madding Crowd in 1874. It was the first of his so-called â€Å"Wessex novels,† set in a fictitious English county closely resembling Hardy’s native Dorsetshire. The novel, whose title was borrowed from Thomas Gray’s famous â€Å"Elegy in a Country Churchyard,† initially appeared in magazine serial form and was the first Hardy work to be widely reviewed. Variations of its rustic characters and settings were to be repeated in several future novels. The novel’s protagonist, Bathsheba Everdene, would also presage other strong Hardy heroines. Plot and Major Characters Bathsheba Everdene, who has inherited a large farm from her uncle, becomes the center of attention for three men. After a chance meeting with a gentle sheep farmer, Gabriel Oak, Gabriel proposes marriage to Bathsheba, but is refused, as she does not consider him a proper suitor. Gabriel loses most of his herd and becomes a faithful shepherd for Bathsheba. She then meets a neighboring well-to-do farmer, Mr. Boldwood, who impresses Bathsheba. She later capriciously sends him a valentine, which excites Boldwood, and he later proposes marriage. Bathsheba puts him off, but it is assumed that she will succumb. In a subplot, a marriage between Bathsheba’s servant, Fanny Robin, and the dashing Sergeant Troy is stopped because of a misunderstanding. Troy turns his attentions to Bathsheba and impresses her with his dazzling sword practice. Troy gains her hand in marriage, leaving Boldwood heartbroken. Meanwhile, the hapless Fanny dies in the workhouse, and her body is brought back to Bathsheba’s farm. Bathsheba discovers the corpse of a baby, Troy’s child, beside that of Fanny. Troy then disappears, and when his clothes are discovered on a beach, it is presumed that he has drowned. Boldwood reappears on the scene, and Bathsheba agrees to marry him out of a sense of remorse. Troy, however, unexpectedly returns and is killed by the distraught Boldwood, who is later tried and found insane. Bathsheba is at last ready to see the true worth of Gabriel, who has faithfully waited like the Oak of his last name, and the two are married. Major Themes A facile interpretation of Far from the Madding Crowd would be that true love triumphs over adversity. Since Hardy’s ending, however, has often been criticized as contrived, other dominant themes in the novel should be explored. The â€Å"Wessex† setting is almost a theme in itself, with the changeless rhythms of nature and agrarian life set against the vicissitudes which confront the characters. It is noteworthy that the most positively portrayed characters are those closest to the earth, such as Gabriel and the peasants who work the soil. The timelessness of the setting is contrasted with the struggles that the characters face against time and chance. Had Bathsheba not sent the valentine, had Fanny not missed her wedding, for example, the story would have taken an entirely different path. Another important theme is that virtue will ultimately be rewarded. Bathsheba’s final acceptance of Gabriel is a form of redemption for her earlier willful behavior. The development of Bathsheba’s character reinforces the ideas that vanity is futile and that rebellion will ultimately be put down for the good of the community. While Bathsheba ultimately is portrayed as a reformed character, the reader may find that her old feisty self was truly more interesting. Critical Reception Far from the Madding Crowd was the first Hardy novel to receive considerable critical attention. It was widely reviewed in England and also marked an important stage in the growth of Hardy’s international reputation; the Paris journal Revue des deux mondes, for example, made it the occasion for a long survey-article on Hardy’s work to date. After the appearance (anonymously) of the first installment, the Spectator observed that â€Å"If Far from the Madding Crowd is not written by George Eliot, then there is a new light among novelists.† Critics during a number of decades have noted that the early serialization of the novel presupposed certain conventions, which could account for the melodramatic nature of many of the scenes. Study of Hardy’s manuscript has shown that he had to make extensive alterations in the portions of the novel referring to Fanny Robin and her illegitimate child. Hardy was widely read and respected at the turn of the twentieth century, but a perception that his work was mostly for a popular audience discouraged serious criticism for several decades. In 1940, a seminal issue of the Southern Review devoted solely to Hardy precipitated a rebirth in Hardy criticism. Early modern critics tended to praise Far from the Madding Crowd’s evocation of rural life or its universality of theme. By the 1960s and 1970s, Freudian and feminist criticism predominated. In the 1980s and 1990s, critics used a wide variety of critical approaches to Far from the Madding Crowd. While some reviewers continued to adopt a New Critical stance, most were influenced by deconstructive or New Historical techniques. A few of the themes critics exploited were the forms of love in the novel, its subtexts, Hardy’s narrative techniques, the relationship of Far from the Madding Crowd to Hardy’s own life experiences, and the novel’s treatment of gender and power. Reviews of film and television adaptations of the novel formed a wholly separate genre of criticism.†

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Understand and Apply the Principles of Liability in Negligence a Essay

Understand and Apply the Principles of Liability in Negligence a Business Context - Essay Example Understand and apply the principles of liability in negligence a business context A business at a given time is bound to be liable for some acts either it has committed or has been committed by any third party who had the ability, right or duty to control the activities of the business. Example of this relationship is that of employer and employee, or that of a parent and a child. Vicarious liability assigns liability for an injury or loss to a person who did not actually cause the injury but has a special legal relationship to the person who acted negligently (Bermingham and Brennan, 2008, p. 27). As has been noted, a business can at a given time be bound to be liable for some acts, and particularly those committed by another person who has special legal relationship with the business. So, how can a business be vicariously liable? There are different incidences in which a business can be vicariously liable. For example, the owner of a car can be held vicariously liable for negligence that was committed by his driver. In an event that a driver commits a negligent act such as exceeding speed limit and as a results causes an accident, the owner (can be a registered business) of the car may be liable for the loss suffered by the owner of the other car or for the injury suffered by the other person involved in the accident.Vicarious liability in this context is based on the assumption that the owner of the car has provided the car for a particular use, and therefore the operator of the car is acting as the agent of the owner. The same assumption is also applied in circumstances whereby the owner of the car lends a car to a friend. Another example of an incidence where a business can be vicariously liable is that which involves a bank that is performing car repossession from the registered owner because of non-payment; the bank has a duty not to cause peace breach when undertaking the repossession. If its agent do cause then it will be liable for the damages as noted in the case of MBank El Paso v. Sanchez (Giliker, P, 2010, p. 21). Generally, v icarious liability operates within the law of torts. Its general rule is that a person who authorizes a tort will be liable personally for injuries or losses that arise as a result. It should be noted that vicarious liability operates within certain circumstances which requires that a person should be liable only in circumstances where special legal relationship exists with the person who has committed negligent act. Vicarious liability has been said to have some merits. The first one is that it is easier for the claimant to attach blame precisely to a responsible person. The second merit is that it makes the owner of a business to impose caution the persons in control of activities thereby helping it avoid avoidable losses (Henderson, 2002, p. 313). 2. Legal principles relating to the vicarious liability have developed through the case law to create scenarios that vicarious liability operates in the field of employment law. Mainly, it has created five main scenarios as demonstrated in the chart below: Always directly liable; always vicariously liable; may be vicariously liable; not vicariously liable; and is always vicariously liable Vicarious Liability Under the tort of negligence, employers are vicariously liable for the torts committed by their employees in the course of employment. Two main reasons have been cited for the justification of vicariously liability imposition on the employers: since the employees help the employers make profit,

The Fate of Taamail's Export Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

The Fate of Taamail's Export - Assignment Example The World Trade Organization (WTO) regulatory context relevant in this case goes back to the Generalized System of Preferences as established under the Enabling clause of the GATT, allowing for the preferential treatment of the developing countries over their developed counterparts in matters of trade relationships (EC, 2004). The relevant legal issue is whether the recent change in the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) as developed by Solia are in violation of Article I and Article III of the GATT of 1994. The most relevant legal issue in this case, however, is the existing inconsistency between the provisions of Article I: 1 of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994 (GATT 1994), as required to apply to all the members of the World Trade Organization, and the Enabling Clause as implemented by the member states of the GATT. The provisions of Article I: 1 of GATT 1994 requires that any preferential treatment in relation to tariffs that is offered to one of the member states should â€Å"immediately and unconditionally† be accorded to all the other members in relation to similar products and other associated trade measures (GATT, 1979). On the other hand, the Enabling clause of the GATT provides for preferential treatment of some nations over the others in relation to similar products and associated trade measures, based on certain considerations and requirements for fulfillment of assigned conditions under their specified Generalized System of Preferences (Mckenzie, 2005) . Nevertheless, the applicability of the Generalized System of Preferences as provided under the Enabling clause of the GATT should be subject to authorization, and subsequent WTO waiver of Article I: 1 of GATT for a specified period of time (Gowa & Hicks, 2012).

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Data Collection Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Data Collection - Assignment Example It is worth mentioning that the various tools used in a qualitative research method are flexible and accordingly, help in finding out detailed information related to the research problem. Apart from this, inductive research method is also been followed in order to collect necessary and relevant data that denotes the approaches of Inmate Health Care and the problems underlying within the same (Northeastern University, n.d.). It is worth mentioning that the data relating to the contributory factors and the problems, which generate severe problems in smooth functioning of Inmate Health Care approach, has been collected. The data, which has been gathered from the use of secondary source, presented the contributory factors including the impact of economic recession and excessive treatment costs that created problems in effective functioning of the aforesaid approach. Apart from this, relevant data was also collected about the pervasiveness of varied chronic diseases that affect the healthcare of the inmates. The data revealed such chronic diseases to be sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV and AIDS among others. In addition, the turbulent financial conditions are also a major problem, which impose adverse impact on the system of offering effective care to the inmates. Justifiably, the collected or researched data revealed that the prisoners often cannot afford the treatment cost and thus get released w ithout treatment (Miller, 2010). In relation to the above context, data has also been researched or collected about how the quality of inmate healthcare can be raised with the eradication of the above discussed problems. In this similar context, the data showcased that the introduction of information and technology might enhance the quality of the inmate healthcare system with evading the underlying problems by a considerable level, thereby diminishing the involved operational costs. From the

Monday, August 26, 2019

The Role of Mitosis and Miosis In Cancer Tistes Antigen (CTA) Literature review - 1

The Role of Mitosis and Miosis In Cancer Tistes Antigen (CTA) - Literature review Example In this work called "The Role of Mitosis and Meiosis in Cancer Testis Antigen (CTA)" author overviews the connection between differentiation failure and cancer development in patients with testis cancer. Division of germ cells has special features that make this illness distinguished in comparison with the other groups of cancer diseases. It is a well-known fact that the germ cell line derives from the primordial germ cells. These cells basically migrate through the dorsal mesentery of the embryo and then enter the fetal gonad that is developing in the genital ridge. In males, in this genital ridge, the primordial germ cells are enclosed by somatic Sertoli cells and are known as prospermatogonia. These proliferate for a few days and then rest at G0 or G1 of cell cycle until puberty. When the individual attains puberty, the proliferation of the prospermatogonia resumes, thus initiating spermatogenesis. Spermatogonia are the male germline stem cells and they proliferate from puberty al l through the adult life. Two meoitic divisions are involved in this step and a tetraploid of primary spermatocytes are first formed which further undergo meiosis to form haploid sperms. Cancer Testis Antigens or CTAs like MAGE and NY-ESO-1 are basically expressed in these spermatogonia. This tiny investigation is aimed at defining role reasons of CT development in patients, who are included in the high-risk group. Tables, statistics and scientific evidence-based argumentation without any doubt will help you to get the highest A!

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Religious Approaches Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Religious Approaches - Essay Example The non-Christian Chinese should engage them through these core values that are also shared by the Christians and they should come in it knowing that it is not an event for hostile arguments. They should not seek to defend nor to attack for at the end no one will emerge as the winner. The dialogue should be conducted with the aim of increasing understanding. The non-Christians Chinese should at all times make sure that the formal debate doesn’t occur outside the dialogue. This doesn’t imply that there should no, or there will be no disagreement at the time of the dialogue. Since the differences that exist at the core of individual’s systems of belief are at issue, frequent disagreements are bound to be there. However, the dialogue isn’t the forum for trying to demonstrate the greatness of one system of belief over another. Open disagreement is supposed to primarily take place only whenever a participant is convinced that another participant has prompted or made a misconception to the practices and beliefs of the first. The non-Christians Chinese when engaging Christians in dialogue, they are supposed to let them their own self-definition. This is a very important rule in such type of dialogue. Christians have to be given the chance to define their beliefs, as well as their understanding of the religious teachings without being contradicted by the non-Christian Chinese. They should also be willing to critically look into their very own religion as they look into Christianity.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Ethical Dilemma Nursing Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Ethical Dilemma Nursing - Assignment Example As doctors, their duty is to save the life of the patients. Moreover, the sanctity of life is an important factor that should be respected by one and all. The second dilemma is the ethical issues involved in the patient’s consent with regard to his treatment. Patient’s autonomy to decide about his medication and his welfare has increasingly become a critical issue within the medical field. Medical paternalism is also a strong issue here. Dr. House is famous for his brilliant but unconventional methods and therefore, his beliefs that he knows more than patients, reveals his paternalistic attitude. Last but not the least important dilemma is that of non-maleficence which dissuades doctors to deliberately harm the patients. These are crucial issues which pose serious challenges for the medical team that is treating Dr. Ezra, especially when they are asked to stop the test and put him to sleep. Answer 2 Dr. House ignores Dr. Ezra’s request for stopping further tests and his demand for euthanasia. The two main ethical principles that can be applied to support Dr. House’s actions are medical beneficence and Kantian’s theory of deontology. The principle of beneficence and non-maleficence are important ethical issues within the medical field that support Dr. House’s actions. ... Kantian’s deontology promotes the concept that the motives of actions always be right and towards the wider benefit of the people (Schneewind, 1990). Acting appropriately at all times, therefore, becomes a key issue that is not concerned with the consequences but the acts which are carried out with good motives. In this case, the House’s major concern was to diagnose the cause of the worsening medical condition of Dr. Ezra. Therefore, his insistence on the tests was aimed at giving relief to Dr. Ezra through diagnosis. House believed that the test would help him to find the cause and equip him with knowledge and information to start the right treatment and correct medication which would help the patient to fully recover. Answer 3 As a nurse, I would not condone Dr. House’s actions mainly because of two ethical principles: the patient has a right to make a decision about his treatment. Patient’s consent is very important that not only shows that he is aware of the pros and con of the treatment and therefore, but his agreement or refusal is also an empowered decision. In this case, Dr. Ezra himself was a renowned medical professional who knew the futility of tests and therefore had asked the team to stop the treatment. Dr. House’s contention that he knows best, defy the basic module of the patient’s autonomy. Furthermore, House was not sure of the diagnosis and all his test were just blind guesses for coming to a definite conclusion. The test could also have an adverse impact on Dr. Ezra’s conditions. Hence, my belief that Dr. House’s actions were not right. Secondly, the utilitarian theory of Bentham proposes that actions should give happiness to the maximum number of people (Rosentand, 2002).  Ã‚  

Friday, August 23, 2019

Art as a social commentary in Salgagos The Salt of the Earth Essay

Art as a social commentary in Salgagos The Salt of the Earth - Essay Example On these pictures, we could clearly see the suffering of the people in poor places. On the other hand, It touches our mind that the artist had shown well in the picture. On the other hand, these pictures let us think about the darkest parts of the world which we never suffer. The artist took many risks to report the truth in the world. All of his pictures are showing the emotion from different kinds of people in Brazil. According to the quote in why art, â€Å"Good art is a trying of vision, in the way a saw is tried in the saw shop, to cut more cleanly†. It is easy to see that good art are based on a true event that what you see and feel in your life. What could be improved and change your life attitude is a good art’s purport. From Salgado's arts, we could feel a real world that these exactly touch our heart. He had traveled to many different countries and took photographs of what he saw. His pictures are showing a real world of the darkest part which we may have never experienced before. The man in his pictures had the most genuine impression and action. A good art is going to tell people to deepen their thinking. Also, the many pictures that Salgago took in Africa showed a different and beautiful world to people. The people of the original environment and people showed a quiet and ordinary life. On the contrary, some pictures from Salgago explained a sad world. The poor people wer e suffering from the disaster. So, a good art is telling a story and let people think about the life of its subject.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Discrimination and Young People Essay Example for Free

Discrimination and Young People Essay 1.1 Explain what is meant by * diversity * equality * inclusion Diversity means difference. It means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing our individual differences such as race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, age, physical abilities and religious beliefs. Equality means treating everyone the same regardless of their individual differences. It is the discovery of these differences in a safe, positive, and nurturing environment. Everyone has an equal right to be treated with dignity and respect. No one should be denied opportunities because of their race or ethnicity, their disability, their gender or sexual orientation, their age or religion. Inclusion means including people in a way that makes them feel appreciated and respected. Treating individuals fairly and respecting the differences between them makes it easier to include them. 1.2 Describe the potential effects of discrimination Discrimination is treating someone or a group of people in a different way to everyone else based on their individual differences. It involves the behavior towards a child or children such as excluding or restricting children from activities that other children are participating in. Discrimination happens when we fail to respect individuals and their choices. Discrimination affects everybody in different ways: Low self-esteem, depression, withdrawn behaviour, shyness, tearful, fearful etc. When someone is discriminated against, it can exclude them from friends, family, neighbours, and society in general. A child’s self-worth is reduced, as they feel isolated, and alone. Children’s Young People’s Workforce (2010 page 21) states that â€Å"When children experience prejudiced attitudes, there is a danger of damage to their self-esteem and self-confidence†. Discrimination can limit a child’s right to achieve their potential and objectives, their right to learn, their right to succeed. The most common forms of discrimination are racial remarks, being insulted and being the butt of hurtful jokes. Discrimination, racism and harassment may have significant mental and physical health consequences such as frustration, stress, anxiety and depression. Effects of discrimination physically and emotionally: Depression Anger Low self-esteem Isolation Loss of confidence Low self-worth Feeling stressed or unable to cope Fear of rejection The long-term effects could include: Loss of motivation Missed opportunities that may affect the childs experiences and development Limited access to services Mental illness caused by stress 1.3 Explain how inclusive practice promotes equality and supports diversity Inclusive practice is about the attitudes, approaches and approaches taken to ensure that people are not excluded or isolated. It means supporting diversity by accepting and welcoming children’s differences, and promoting equality by ensuring equal opportunities for all children. Child care workers show inclusive practice by working in ways that recognise, respect, value and make the most of all aspects of diversity. Children’s Young People’s Workforce (2010 page 25) states that another type of inclusive practice is to â€Å"offer children equality of opportunity to  participate, develop and learn. This does not mean treating them all the same; we have to acknowledge their diversity and treat children as individuals, with equal concern†. Having a sound awareness of and responding sensitively to an individual’s diverse needs supports them in developing a sense of belonging, well-being and confidence in their identity and capabilities and it helps them to achieve their potential to take their place in society. In addition, inclusive practice involves having an understanding of the impact that discrimination, inequality and social exclusion can have on an individual’s physical and mental health. Having such an understanding ensures appropriate, personalised care and support, thereby enabling an individual to develop self-respect and maintain a valued role in society. Children’s Young People’s Workforce (2010 page 20) states that â€Å"When children spend time in settings which promote diversity, equality of opportunity and inclusion, they are able to make progress in all areas of development†. Inclusive practice involves reflecting on and challenging one’s own prejudices, behaviours and work practices. It also involves challenging those of colleagues and other service providers with a view to changing ways of thinking and working and changing services to build on good practice and to better support diversity and promote equality. Bibliography Authors:Penny Tassoni, Kate Beith, Kath Bulman, Sue Griffin Year of publication:2010 Title:Children’s Young People’s Workforce – Early Learning Childcare Publisher:Heinemann

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Egypt’s pyramid Essay Example for Free

Egypt’s pyramid Essay Egypt one of the earliest civilization is a nation embellish with rich culture and tradition, the pyramids being is a witness to their grandeur. Egypt’s pyramid is one of their pride; it depicts the power and glory of those ancient rulers and their influence. The pyramids’ brilliance is known to every individual but little of us knew how the pyramids were erected, what form of tools where used, how did they conduct the calculations considering that every angle of the triangle is perpendicular with each other, and what does the earliest pyramids look like. The Egyptian pyramid certainly has origin, how did they polish such wondrous creation and why pyramids vary in sizes. What is the underlying principle in building such tomb. Several studies were conducted in unleashing this pyramids enigma, yet some still was a mystery. The Pyramids of Egypt is distinct from among the wonders of the world. It has its certain characteristics, incomparable in magnitude, not only that it is the oldest man made creation from among the wonders of the world it conceals numerous historical records, the pyramid being is the door to unlock the secrets of Egypt’s antiquity. We have already uncovered some few material things on Egypt’s long forgotten past, but that is only a part of the larger feature of Egypt. The pyramids have in it some several encryptions which convey us about their tradition and belief in magical spells and hymns written in hieroglyphics form. It depicts the journey of the pharaohs in the afterlife. This compilation of hieroglyphics is called the Pyramid Texts. Aside from the ancient texts carved within the walls of the pyramids, pyramids also vary from each other on the physical aspect, such as its structure, its height and designs. The Pyramid of Cheops and Cephren is one significant example. We have witnessed in the records of history how ancient people revere much the final resting place of their loved ones. Similarly, in Egypt the pyramids are one of the most important objects conveying their belief in the afterlife. The pyramids that we used to have now only belongs to the greatest ruler of Egypt hence the Great Pyramids of Egypt, none of the pyramids ever survived that belong to other least rulers during the ancient time. Not only that the pyramids gain attraction on its concealed past, through the pyramids, some scientists dig the scientific engineering used at the time when the pyramid was built. It is genuine worked made by a brilliant mind. These are among the content of this paper. Based from previous researches, we will have to draw a general conclusion that will help address this problem. Body The Pyramids. Unlike many other temples that served as a house for the living, the pyramid serves as the eternal resting place of Egyptian kings and queens’ body and also a place for religious activity. According to ancient Egyptian belief, the pyramid where the mummy was placed provides for the monarch to pass the afterlife. The ruler’s body was carefully treated and wrapped to preserve it as a mummy. To pray for the soul of the dead ruler, the priests in nearby temples performed religious rituals in order to nourish the spirit, it is believed that the when the ruler died, the spirit remains to the body right after death. The Pyramid Texts were written in the walls of the pyramid to safeguard the soul during its journey. In the Egyptian Old Kingdom, most kings and queens draft for a design of their tomb usually with complicated structure made up of large stone and blocks. Yet probably because the materials were too costly, the size and quality of built pyramids decreased. In the Middle Kingdom, the Egyptians build pyramids out of mud brick. In the tradition, all pyramids were aligned to the cardinal directions which refer to the north-south and east-west location. Most pyramids were found in the desert plateaus on the west bank of the Nile River where the sun sets. According to belief, the dead monarch’s spirit will left the body and shall travel through the sky with the sun each day. When the sun will set in the west, the spirit will now settle into their tomb to renew their selves. Step Pyramid at Saqqara. Before the pyramids, the pharaohs were buried in tombs called the mastabas. It is a big, roofed, square building with walls that sloped gently inward. In the center of the building, a deep shaft was cut to which the burial chamber is located. There they stored the pharaohs’ significant possessions. In building the mastabas (â€Å"bench), the pharaoh needed much worker to work for his project. When there is dearth of workers, he sent out word to all his governors from different provinces. The governors in turn will send the word to every town and village and farmers from all over Egypt in order to come and work for the pharaoh’s project. The earliest known pyramid is the pyramid of King Djoser (Zoser) of the third dynasty. It was build with a giant steps like six mastabas stacked one on the top of the other looking like a rectangular wedding cake with six layers. Other pharaoh’s after him design their own pyramids trying to furnish a better pyramid than that of Djoser. Djoser Step Pyramid architecture was Imhotep. He commissioned a court official to design and build him a unique burial tomb. Accordingly, the building of the pyramid required two things which had never been done before: â€Å"the first was provided by a pacified and united country while for the second a unique human genius was required,† (Mendelssohn, 1979). Imhotep has advantage to this. Although he is not of royal blood, his official title as a purely self-made man was â€Å"Chancellor of the King of Lower Egypt, First after the King of Upper Egypt, Administrator of the Great Palace, Hereditary Nobleman, High Priest of the Heliopolis, Builder, Sculptor and Maker of Vases in Chief†, and he was an engineer before the word ever existed (Thomas, 2005). Imhotep brilliancy was praised by many intelligent minds during his time. He developed and controlled the logistics and persuades a group of thousands of men into a well-organized workforce capable of producing suppose to be the world’s tallest pyramid by a factor of twenty. Imhotep has long solved the problems such as the balance of the lateral forces in the gigantic pyramidal weight while pressing down on a square base. To address the problem, his masons slanted the inner stones of Zoser’s pyramid towards the apex to help balance it out. This designed is considered as grossly overlooked with the introduction of Meidum pyramid. (Ibid. ). Nevertheless, Imhotep’s step pyramid was the first stone structure in the history and is the oldest surviving pyramid today. Several nature factors affect the pyramids’ brilliance, but none of it had overcome the clarity of mind of Imhotep. The fact that his structure stand today is a clear indication that he had overcome nature’s changing environment. Yet Imhotep brilliancy is almost trivial, we had little information on his intelligence and none of the records ever survived in justification of his eminence. Meidum Pyramid. The Meidum pyramid was introduced in the year 2600 BC. It is in the shape of tetrahedron. It started as a step pyramid with inward leaning walls and eight levels. The pyramid construction at Meidum became unsuccessful because there is probably lacking in the design of the pyramid. The interior support of the pyramid partially was collapsed and massive rubble mounds were found beneath the base of the pyramid. Bent Pyramid. After the failure of the Meidum Pyramid, King Sneferu, the father of Khufu started designing his pyramid. He actually started with the Meidum pyramid but for unknown reasons he moved his burial chamber north to Dashur, at the Giza Plateau with a different design. The foundation of the pyramid was a big flat area of limestone bedrock. Also as an advantage, in the nearby area there was a limestone quarry, a place where they could cut two to three ton limestone block to be used in building the pyramid. His pyramid was made of stone blocks leaning inward. In constructing the base of the pyramid, the stone cutters leveled the foundation of the pyramid providing indications as to where the pyramid would be located. The sun and the stars serve as their guiding point to align the pyramid facing exactly towards the four cardinals, the north, south, east and west. They aimed at leveling the sides of the pyramid equal to all angles. Each of the side using modern measurements is 755 feet and 8 inches long; the length is less than two inches of the four sides. However, during the construction of the pyramid, the weight of the upper portion started to inflate causing the pyramid to be not in proportion. It had slowly sink; the weight and angle of the stones where much heavier than in its base. To address the problem, the builders put up an outer supporting wall cutting off the 60 degrees angle to 55 degrees. The upper portion is only 43 degrees. This is where the pyramid got his name, the Bent Pyramid. During the construction, the architects tried to polish their work by applying what they have learned in building the bent pyramid. They must have laid down horizontal layers of larger stone and blocks. In order to vindicate their erroneous design, they construct again another giant pyramid for Sneferu called the North Pyramid. Sneferu returned to Meidum and refined the Meidum pyramid by adding outer level using new approach in constructing it. Sneferu’s new technique somehow became successful. His new technique became the foundation of the 4th dynasty pyramids and the Great Pyramid at Giza. Indeed, something did. Imhotep’s buttresses, while always at the base step pyramid of other true pyramids, were not extended to include the buttressing of the structurally significant outer casing. Pyramids built later than Meidum demonstrate this slanting of the outer casing. (Thomas, 2005) Khufu’s Pyramid. The proliferation of pyramid gradually decline in the 5th dynasty when irregularities seem to pervade in the whole kingdom of Egypt. Perhaps, one significant attribute of the so called chaotic period in Egypt called the First Intermediate Period is crossing the alley of yore to the Middle Period where new techniques and materials were applied. Parallel to it, when the building of pyramid was once restored, the pyramids’ beauty was converted into gross physical appearance to lucidity. Khufu, son of King Sneferu becomes pharaoh. To build a legacy on the surface of the Earth, he set out to design the largest pyramid. Sneferu’s three pyramids laid new important techniques in maintaining Khufu’s pyramid throughout the time. That is to build a pyramid with a solid stone foundation. In onset of the pyramid’s construction, Khufu ordered his governors to seek workers out of forty-two towns of Egypt. He require ten working men or boys each town to accomplish his ambitious pyramid. During Khufu’s reign, there are some speculations that massive slave workers were forced to work in building the pyramid. However in Herodotus account, the workers were not compelled to work for the pyramid. In contrary to his statement, he said however that there is dearth of workers, thus some forcible action is impliedly conducted. There was no account yet being surfaced to warrant the situation. Accordingly, most of the men were proud to work for Khufu; there is so much honor in building the eternal home of the god-king. Men formed into 20-30 teams and also have given their teams a name such as â€Å"Khufu is Bright†. Evidences lie in the hidden parts of the pyramids where modern archaeologists have found them. The construction of the pyramid began. The base forms a nearly perfect square having 19-cm. This huge square is almost exactly leveled out. In the core of the pyramid, it probably has a hill of unexcavated rubble making it difficult to determine the exact number of blocks. According to research, the Great Pyramid’s blocks are estimated to 2. 3 millions of blocks having an average weight of 2. 5 metric tons. Hundreds of men worked for quarrying, moving, setting and sculpting the huge amount of stone used to build the Great Pyramid. A total of 25, 000 men and women worked in the construction site for a couple of years. According to one account, there were no slaves who worked in finishing the project. Most probably were farmers, architects, masons, metal workers and carpenters. The architects of Khufu selected a site in Giza on surface of bedrock not sand which will provide a steady foundation. The workers lower the stones in a horizontal level, on one top of the other. The stone used in the interior area was out of quarried blocks in the south of the construction site. The exterior part which is finely finished was out of white limestone quarried across the Nile River. To transport the materials, the workers have to cut the limestone and transported by a river barge to Giza. The rest of the materials were used in building edifices in Cairo. Dating from the earlier failure of the architects, they had failed to recognize the symmetry of the stones placed on top of the other. Khufu’s pyramid however applied the rule on symmetry. Workers have marked all the blocks indicating the angle of the pyramid wall and trimmed the surfaces so that all blocks will fit together. On the sides of the pyramid, workers built large ramps to help drag their materials to the sides of the structure. Those ramps being used were probably of desert clay mixed with water tighten by limestone debris leftover from the construction work. The final exterior phase f the pyramid is the installation of the pyramidion or the cap stone of the pyramid. In order to reveal the full majestic view of the pyramid, workers must dismantle the ramps on the surface of the pyramid. Thereafter, the pyramid had displayed its real beauty. For the interior part of the pyramid, it is compose of complex chambers where a series of passages will lead to master chamber where the body of the King shall be placed. The pyramid’s entrance is about 17 m intended to be used during Khufu’s funeral. The entrance of the pyramid will likely lead you to the Descending Passage and shall reach the Subterranean Chamber. The Descending Chamber is intersected with the Ascending Passage. The Ascending Passage is the conduit to Queen’s Chamber as so called by the Arabs. But according to some archaeologists, this is where the king statue is located representing his ka, his spirit. The Ascending Passage intersects with the Grand Gallery which housed some large stones used to plug passages after the king’s funeral. At the upper end of the Grand Gallery intersects to the King’s Chamber, a simple rectangular room covered entirely with red granite. Now, what remains is the granite sarcophagus of King Khufu buried near the western wall. Some portion of pyramids’ myriad passage was still mysterious. There are some pyramids that have satellite pyramids and queens’ pyramid. The satellite pyramid’s function is still unknown. Some argued that it must have contained the ka of the king. The queens’ pyramid was smaller version of the kings pyramid intended to be a burial site for the king’s principal wives. The two Great Pyramids beside Khufu’s pyramid belongs to Khafre and Menkaure, Khufu’s son and grandson. Other Great Pyramids. Other pyramids built with the same technique to that of the Khufu’s pyramid is the pyramids of Khafre and Menkaure. In the later years, the building of great pyramids began to decline when Egypt’s resources began to deplete. Several smaller pyramids were design by later rulers however in different location. There are also some smaller pyramids that serve as a burial site for queens and secondary wives of the kings. Later pyramids constructed were the pyramid of Djedefre at Abu Rawash, the pyramid of Sahure at Abu Sir, the pyramid of Neferirkare Kakai at Abu Sir, the pyramid of Nyuserre Ini ate Abu Sir, the pyramid of Amenemhet I at Lisht, the pyramid of Senusret I and Senusret II at Lisht and the pyramid of Amenemhet III ate Hawara.

Social Work in School: Reflection

Social Work in School: Reflection This essay will be an analysis of my social work practice in my recent placement at Murston Primary School in Sittingbourne, Kent. This piece is a reflective piece on my time at this school and the issues I encountered while I was there. In order to accomplish this, this essay will be broken down into several sections. The first section will serve as an introduction to the placement setting. It will provide a brief overview of the school and the area of Sittingbourne. The next section will move on to look at some of the issues that I encountered during my time at the school. Schools offer an interesting area of study for social workers because as a colleague of mine argued, â€Å"every issue comes through those school gates†. This essay will consider some of those issues and how they are resolved in this setting. It will consider some of the theories at play in this environment and examine what works well and what doesn’t work so well when it comes to practicing social work in schools. I will reference specific examples from my own time there to illustrate this. The third section of this essay will then turn to take a wider view of some of the issues at play in terms of having social workers in schools. Although social work placements in schools are fairly commonplace these days, they still do raise some fairly specific issues. Throughout this essay, the focus has to remain on the service users, in this case the pupils at the school and to a lesser extent their parents and how their needs are being met. It will consider how anti-oppressive practices are at play in this setting and how successful they are. I want this piece to be a reflective piece. Reflection is a key component of learning within the caring professions as it forces you to critically analyse and evaluate what you may have done differently and what you will do differently should you encounter the same or a similar situations again. It would be useful to apply my experiences to a particular model of reflection as it will help me greater understand what I have learnt and help me to be critical about certain aspects of the experience as a whole. The reflective model I have chosen to use for this essay is Borton’s (1970) Developmental Model for Reflective Practice. It is one of a number of models I could have chosen (John’s model of reflection,1994; Kolb’s learning cycle, 1984; Atkins and Murphy’s model of reflection, 1994; Gibbs’ model of reflection, 1988 ) but Borton’s model best suits my purpose. The model that Borton devised is based on 3 separate elements that work in a sequential, cyclical order. The first stage is the descriptive stage, or the ‘what?’. It makes the practitioner consider what the issue was, what their role in it was, and what the response was to the actions taken? The second stage is the ‘so what?’. This forces the practitioner to consider the theory and knowledge building that is an essential part of reflection. What do the events tell or teach one about the service user, about myself and about the model of care that I am applying. What was I feeling at the time and did these feeling affect my actions? What could I have done differently if presented with the same situation again and how has my understanding changed as a result of what I have been through. The final stage of this model is the ‘now what?’. This stage looks at how the situation can be bettered in the future. This is when broader issues may come into pla y. Murston Primary School in Sittingbourne, Kent is a mixed, non-denominational school with approximately 140 students. Because a nursery school was opened last year, it now caters for students aged between 3 and 11. The majority of the students are white British but there are a few students from minority ethnic backgrounds. The population which it serves is fairly stable but temporary housing in the local area means there is some degree of transience and some pupils joining in Years 1 and 2 have had no previous experience of school. A high proportion of pupils at this school have been identified as having learning difficulties and/or disabilities. Their needs relate mostly to learning, speech and language difficulties, behavioural, emotional and social needs, autism and physical disability. A recent Ofsted report rated the school as good. The report stated that the school, â€Å"provides a good standard of education within a very safe, caring family atmosphere† (Ofsted, 2008: p. 4). The school is in the Borough of Swale. While much of this borough is fairly affluent, there are a few pockets of deprivation. Sittingbourne is one of these areas. This is reflected by the well above average take up of free school meals. This essay will now focus on three issues of the many issues that I encountered in my time at Murston Primary School. These are bullying, the inclusion of children with autism and finally self-harm. I have chosen these three areas to focus on because they are three quite diverse issues. Bullying is one that is widely covered and is a common problem in most schools in the UK. The inclusion of children with autism is a growing area of study as more and more is found out about this disorder. Self-harm among young children is an area that is often ignored because of the stigma that it still holds in our society. However, it is a very real problem and one that I encountered during my time at Murston Primary School. Bullying is, â€Å"an unfortunate reality which occurs across disparate cultures and educational settings at about the same rate† (Carney and Merrell, 2001: p. 364). Hazler (1996) defines bullying as, â€Å"repeatedly (not just once or twice) harming others. This can be done by physical attack or hurting others’ feelings through words, actions or social exclusion. Bullying may be done by one person or by a group. It is an unfair match since the bully is either physically, verbally and/or socially stronger than the victim†. Bullying has been identified as one of the top concerns that parents have about their children’s safety when at school. In response, the government has made tackling the problem of bullying a top priority. The Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCFS) recently published, Safe to Learn: Embedding Anti-Bullying Work in Schools (2007). This report sets out a framework for schools to use in formulating anti-bullying strategies. A certain amount of leeway is given to schools to formulate their own responses to bullying but there are certain elements that all anti-bullying programmes should contain. The victims of bullying should be able to be heard; they should know how to report bullying and get help; they should be confident in the ability of the school to deal with the problem; they should feel confident that steps are being taken to help them feel safe; they can receive help to rebuild their confidence and they have to know that they can receive support from others. Those involved in bullying have to be aware that there are sanctions and learning programmes that will hold them to account for their behaviour and help them realise the harm they have caused. These pupils have to develop their emotional skills so that they can learn to behave in ways that won’t cause harm to others. They also have to learn how to repair the damage they have caused. The school as a whole has to be clear about the anti-bullying stance. There needs to be a collaborative effort between staff members and pupils to develop the anti-bullying work in the school. All pupils have to be clear that they can prevent bullying. Most importantly perhaps, anti-bullying has to be regarded as a collaborative effort not just within the school but with other schools within the area and with other agencies. Not as much attention is given to the problem of bullying in primary schools as much of the focus is on the transition that pupils make when they move from the smaller, more personal environment of a primary school to the larger, and much less supportive secondary school environment (Eccles, Wigfield, Schiefele, 1998). Pellegrini and Long (2002) argue that bullying during this transition is, â€Å"a deliberate strategy used to attain dominance as youngsters enter a new social group† (p. 260). However, another cause of bullying is the rapid changes that occur in body size. This is especially the case for boys. Pellegrini and Bartini (2001) argue that these changes lead to a reorganisation of social dominance hierarchies. The bigger the boy is, the more dominant he becomes over his smaller peers. This change is usually witnessed in secondary school as puberty doesn’t occur in males until the early years of secondary school. Hazler (1996) argues that bullying is most comm on between the ages of 9 and 15. There was a child at Murston Primary School who was much physically bigger than many of the other boys in the school who had had a history of fairly violent behaviour towards some of the other boys in the school. I will refer to this boy as John. John is 11 and is in year six, so he is in his final year at Murston. He is from a minority ethnic background and he only joined the school the year previously. John has been identified as having some learning difficulties as his reading level and language levels are well below what they should be at his age. He is also a recipient of free school meals. John has had difficulties in adjusting to Murston and has been bullying two students in particular. Murston has a well developed anti-bullying plan which is especially important considering the high proportion of vulnerable students with learning difficulties and/or disabilities. The school has a teacher who is in charge of the anti-bullying programme. She is well known to all the other staff and pupils. She is a well liked member of staff by the pupils and she has an open door policy where students are made to feel welcome. This policy may be so successful because as Smith and Shu (2001) argue, young er children are more likely to tell someone when they witness bullying. Other teachers are required to tell her if they suspect anyone of being bullied or bullying. In most cases she is able to successfully mediate between the two parties with parental involvement in all cases. However, in extreme cases she will contact the LEA who will first send a social worker to work with the two parties and then an educational psychologist. I was able to observe one of her sessions with John and also his educational psychologist who had been involved from when the problem had first been identified. Olweus (1993) argues that sometimes staff at school can model bullying behaviour by belittling and threatening students. This was certainly not the case at Murston. John had not learnt this behaviour from his teachers. John was not a popular member of school. This is supported by Carney and Merrell (2001) who state that, â€Å"in early grades bullies tend to enjoy average or somewhat below average popularity among peers† (p. 370). John also bullied alone which is contrary to many of the theories of bullying that suggest that bullies tend to bully in groups (Smith and Shu, 2001). It became clear that John was acting out because he was having feelings of inadequacy due to language levels being so much lower than many of the other children in the class. He felt excluded from many of his peers and bullying was a way of getting rid of his frustration. It would be useful to briefly apply Borton’s (1970) Developmental Model for Reflective Practice to this experience. This essay has adequately covered the ‘what?’ so far. I felt that the school was handling the problem well and were recognising that some cases require outside help. Because it had taken the educational psychologist many sessions to build up trust with John, I wasn’t able to participate fully as the school felt they were at quite a delicate stage with John. However, just from observing I learnt about the frustrations that cause bullying. Murston Primary School is in quite an advantageous position when it comes to bullying. Being so small, it is easy to identify problems when they arise and it is possible to deal with problems more effectively. I don’t think they can do much more in their anti-bullying programme. The second issue this essay will look at is the inclusion of children with autism spectrum disorder in schools. This term covers a range of developmental disorders from autism to Asperger syndrome. This essay will focus on autism because there were several children at Murston Primary School with autism. There are three distinct behaviours that characterise autism. The first is that autistic children have difficulty with social interaction. Secondly, autistic children experience problems with verbal and nonverbal communication. The final characterising characteristic of this disorder is unusual, repetitive and very limited interests. Barnard (2002) states that the rate of autism spectrum disorder reported by teachers is three times higher in primary schools than it is in secondary schools. Autism is classified as a mild learning disorder and because of this, children suffering form it are encouraged to go to mainstream schools such as Murston. Inclusion is a contentious issue in educational circles. It implies, â€Å"Inclusion implies a restructuring of mainstream schooling that every school can accommodate every child irrespective of disability† (Avramidis and Norwich, 2002: p. 131). The idea first came to the public attention with the publication of the Warnock Report in 1978. Croll and Moses (2000) state that, â€Å"support for the principle of inclusion of all children in mainstream neighbourhood schools has achieved widespread support, at least at a rhetorical level† (p. 4). It is often seen as the ideal but an ideal that is not fully achievable. The critical element to inclusion is how the teachers respond to it. Avramidis and Norwich (2002) argue that, â€Å"teachers’ beliefs and attitudes are critical in ensuring the success of inclusive practices since teachers’ acceptance of the policy of inclusion is likely to affect their commitment to implementing it† (p. 130). The view in th e UK was fairly positive. Clough and Lindsay (1991) found that on the whole teachers were fairly happy with inclusion, provided the support was in place for them. However, inclusion is now widely seen as somewhat of a failure. Schools want to seem like they are inclusive, but they have yet to make adequate provisions for pupils with special educational needs. A 2004 Ofsted report entitled, Special educational needs and disability: towards inclusive schools, supports this view. There are many issue surrounding the inclusion of autistic children in ordinary state schools. Murston is an inclusive school and an inclusive school that unlike many other schools is able to cater to the needs of students with autism. Barnard et al. (2000) state that inclusive schools, â€Å"must ensure that appropriate learning or other positive experiences take place. It is not simply about where an individual is educated or receives services or support; it is about the quality of such a service or support. Inclusive education is a process involving the restructuring of the curriculum and classroom organisation† (p. 6). Murston is certainly well equipped to deal with the demands placed upon them by these pupils. The school has realised that to adequately meet the needs of its service users it needs to involve the expertise of other agencies. Input has been sought from a number of specialist professions including educational psychologists, speech, language and occupational t herapists. Teaching assistants have received extra training in dealing with children with autism and there are regular workshops for teachers as well. Not only are the teachers well trained, but there are a range of intervention programmes in operation to help not only the students with autism but also without autism. The 2008 Ofsted report made special mention of the provisions that Murston offers these students by stating that, â€Å"outstanding care, guidance and support mean pupils are exceptionally well looked after. Staff cater for everyones needs very well, including those children who are particularly vulnerable† (p. 5). Barnard et al (2000) argue that parents are happiest when schools recognise the individual needs of their child. From my time at Murston, I would say that this is a priority for the school. As with the issue of bullying, Murston is in a fairly advantageous position due to it’s size. It is able to offer such fantastic support because it has a relatively small number of students. Although it does have a higher proportion of students with autism than many other schools in the area, most of the teachers I spoke to seemed very positive about the work they were able to do. It is possible to apply Borton’s (1970) Developmental Model for Reflective Practice to my experience of inclusion. I got to assist in a few classes and on a number of instances helped out the children with autism. I didn’t feel sufficiently trained to deal with some of their more specific problems. However, my experience did teach me the importance of treating each child as an individual. I feel that Murston has a good system in place, aided by the fact that it is a very small school. It would be useful for them to be able to share some of their knowledge with other schools in the local area. This essay will now consider the final issue that I encountered in my time at Murston Primary School. Deliberate self-harm is when someone injures or harms themselves on purpose. This can take many forms. It can range from taking an overdose to cutting or burning oneself. Gunnell et al (2000) claim that it is a problem that is growing and affecting more young people than ever before. Because of the social stigma attached to it, it is often a problem that goes unreported and as such there are no hard statistics about it. However, a 2004 report published by the Office for National Statistics estimates that about 1 in 12 children and young people deliberately self-harm. This leads to well over 24,000 hospitalisations every year. There are numerous reasons why children and young people self-harm. If the individual is feeling worried, trapped and helpless by a problem they may be having, self-harm is a way of regaining control of the situation. Self-harm is also a way of relieving tension. Children sometimes lack the necessary language skills to truly express their emotions. This leads to them bottling up their feelings. The only way of releasing these is through self-harm. Thirdly, self-harm can be a form of punishment if the child or young person is feeling guilty about something they may have done or witnessed. Finally, self-harm may be a way of helping the child to feel connected after the emotional numbness that often follows a traumatic event. Self-harm is often seen as something that girls do. Young et al (2007) do not go along with this assumption. They argue that while women are more likely to take this behaviour forward into later life, levels are similar between young girls and boys. Boys tend to favour the more violent methods whereas girls are less violent. One might expect that this activity is higher among people from lower socio-economic backgrounds as well but West and Sweeting (2004) dispute this. They argue that in actual fact this is not the case. Levels of health are the same across all groups of children and yond people in today’s society. While I was at Murston Primary School, there was evidence that a girl in year 6 had been deliberately self-harming. I felt that the situation was dealt with very well by the staff at the school. The problem was identified quickly and guidelines based on a Royal College of Psychiatrists fact sheet were followed. The student was made to feel comfortable and it soon transpired that her mother had been quite seriously ill for some time. Her case was referred on to social services and her GP but again, the value of treating this girl as an individual meant that she was able to open up to staff in the first place. Self-harming behaviour is an indication that something is going seriously wrong in the life of that young person. There are no quick fixes to this problem. I feel that the school has a more than adequate care structure to deal with this problem. Overall I felt my experience at Murston Primary School was very positive. I got to witness firsthand a wide variety of issues that affect the students on a day to day basis. I only chose the three examples above as I felt they gave an indication of the wide variety of issues that exist in a school setting. Having social workers in school is still a relatively new concept in many parts of the country. I felt that maybe this school was not set-up to have a full time social worker on the staff but I don’t think it needed one as it was a very small school. However, I do realise the value of schools working with social services, especially in areas such as Sittingbourne that do have fairly high levels of deprivation. There are a number of issues that arise from this and schools, working in collaboration with social services and other local agencies are best equipped to tackle these problems of social exclusion. Most of the staff in the school were happy to allow me to shadow them but I felt a certain amount of hostility from some staff because it felt like I was looking over their shoulder and questioning their methods. This was not the case, for the most part I was simply observing. I did not feel it prudent to get involved in most cases because I had no knowledge of the background and in many cases the pupils already had a number of people from the caring professions already working for them. I was able to offer my help and expertise when it was required but for the most part I was happy to observe the interactions within this complex and challenging environment. Bibliography and References Avramidis, E. and Norwich, B. (2002). Teachers’ attitudes towards integration/inclusion: a review of the literature, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 17(2), pp. 129-147. Barnard, J. (2000). Inclusion and Autism: Is it Working?, London: NAS. Barnard, J. (2002). Autism in Schools: Crisis or Challenge?, London: NAS. Carney, A.G. and Merrell, K.W. (2001). Bullying in Schools, School Psychology International, 22(3), pp. 364-382. Clough, P. and Lindsay, G. (1991). Integration and the Support Service, Slough: NFER. Croll, P. Moses, D. (2000). Ideologies and utopias: education professionals’ views of inclusion. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 15(1), 1-12. DCFS (2007). Safe to Learn: Embedding Anti-Bullying Work in Schools, HM Stationery Office. Eccles, J. S., Wigfield, A., Schiefele, U. (1998). Motivation to succeed. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 1017–1096), New York: Wiley. Gunnell, D., Shepherd, M. and Evans, M.(2000). Are recent increases in deliberate self-harm associated with changes in socio-economic conditions? An ecological analysis of patterns of deliberate self-harm in Bristol1972-3 and 1995-6, Psychological Medicine, 30, pp. 1197-1203 Hazler, R.J. (1996). Breaking the Cycle of Violence: Interventions for Bullying and Victimization, Washington, DC: Accelerated Development. Ofsted (2008). Murston Infant School: Inspection Report, HMSO. Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school, Cambridge, MA: Blackwell. Pellegrini, A. D., Bartini, M. (2001). Dominance in early adolescent boys: Affiliative and  aggressive dimensions and possible functions, Merrill–Palmer Quarterly, 47, pp. 142–63. Pellegrini, A.D. and Long, J.D. (2002). A longitudinal study of bullying, dominance, and  victimization during the transition from primary school through secondary school, British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 20, pp. 259-280. Smith, P.K. and Shu, S. (2001). What Good Schools Can Do About Bullying: Findings from a Survey in English Schools After a Decade of Research and Action, Childhood, 7(2), pp. 193-212. Warnock Report. DES (1978). Special Educational Needs: Report of the Committee of Enquiry into the Education of Handicapped Children and Young People. London: HMSO. West, P. and Sweeting, H. (2004). Evidence on equalisation in youth from the West of Scotland. Social Science and Medicine, 59, pp. 13-27. Young, R. Van Beinum, M., Sweeting, H. and West, P. (2007). Young people who self-harm, British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, pp. 44 -49.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Free Blacks in the Seventeenth Century Essay -- essays papers

Free Blacks in the Seventeenth Century In the early sixteen-hundreds there were nearly equal opportunities for blacks and whites in the New World, most specifically in Virginia. One African-American man in particular exemplifies this fact. Anthony Johnson escalated in society from being a slave1 to becoming a wealthy landowner with slaves of his own.2 The successes of this man both economically and socially provide a rather important window into the lives and opinions of the peoples in Virginia at the time, especially the black community and their treatment by their fellow white agriculturalists. â€Å"Antonio a Negro† arrived in Virginia in 1621 as a servant on a tobacco plantation, it was during his servitude that he met his wife Mary who had been bought to work at the same location several years after Anthony. Although it still remains a mystery how Anthony and Mary accumulated their wealth, they managed to buy their way out of servitude and acquire land of there own.3 They were not alone in this endeavor, however; it is known that several free blacks were able to advance in society in similar fashion. In the years between the mid 17th century into the later part of the century blacks were able to acquire land and status in the Virginian society. This proves that racial prejudices were subtle in this time span. In a society of even minimal equality in race it is possible for blacks to succeed alongside the white community. In the 18th century the lifestyle... Free Blacks in the Seventeenth Century Essay -- essays papers Free Blacks in the Seventeenth Century In the early sixteen-hundreds there were nearly equal opportunities for blacks and whites in the New World, most specifically in Virginia. One African-American man in particular exemplifies this fact. Anthony Johnson escalated in society from being a slave1 to becoming a wealthy landowner with slaves of his own.2 The successes of this man both economically and socially provide a rather important window into the lives and opinions of the peoples in Virginia at the time, especially the black community and their treatment by their fellow white agriculturalists. â€Å"Antonio a Negro† arrived in Virginia in 1621 as a servant on a tobacco plantation, it was during his servitude that he met his wife Mary who had been bought to work at the same location several years after Anthony. Although it still remains a mystery how Anthony and Mary accumulated their wealth, they managed to buy their way out of servitude and acquire land of there own.3 They were not alone in this endeavor, however; it is known that several free blacks were able to advance in society in similar fashion. In the years between the mid 17th century into the later part of the century blacks were able to acquire land and status in the Virginian society. This proves that racial prejudices were subtle in this time span. In a society of even minimal equality in race it is possible for blacks to succeed alongside the white community. In the 18th century the lifestyle...

Monday, August 19, 2019

Artificial Tanning Essay -- Skin Cancer Culture Papers

Artificial Tanning Jim Rice loved the way tanning made him look and feel, that is, until he became personally affected by the dangers that came with the frivolous glitz and glamour of a nice tan. Artificial tanning has become a sub-culture for youths across the nation. Those who do not go tanning are a minority and those who do tan ignore the health risks posted in every tanning booth and bed in the state of Massachusetts. However, for Jim Rice, a middler chemical engineering major at Northeastern University, the health risks of tanning transformed into a frightening reality. "Recreational tanning was always the hip thing to do back in high school," said Rice. "But when I started to notice skin discoloration on my lower hip during my senior year of high school it wasn't so hip anymore." When doctors told Rice that he had pre-cancerous cells in existing moles he didn't think much of it. He figured that he would have the moles removed and his worries would be over. "I got the most perplexed when my dermatologist told me to stay out of the sun and wear sunscreen at all times," said Rice. It was as if being tan was more of a priority than his health. Following his initial surgery, Rice had to pay a trip to his skin doctor every six months. Upon his first visit back to the doctor, Rice was diagnosed with two cancerous growths - one pre-cancerous and one cancerous. Another surgery would have to take place immediately. Suddenly, Rice looked back on his frequent tanning salon habits and his "darkness" competitions with fellow lifeguards over the summers in utter regret. Rice has had seven surgeries since. He had plastic surgery to help reduce the scarring on his body. His doctors placed him on an extremely high risk f... ... admits that she is impatient and would rather get spray-tanned in 30 seconds over sweating in a tanning bed for twelve minutes. There are no proven health risks of spray tanning as of right now; however the FDA is investigating the safety of the DHA component in the "Mystic Tan". "Everyone should be aware that what happened to me could very possibly happen to anyone," said Rice. "The risks that come along with tanning are not far from a reality, even if they sneak up on people ten or twenty years down the road." Rice understands that tanning provides an ultimate self-esteem boost. Although Rice wishes that he could get his tan back, he realizes that tanning is only a temporary satisfaction. He has learned this the hard way. "People really need to weigh out how important tanning is to them and if they are prepared to deal to the consequences," said Rice.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Anthem :: essays research papers

Anthem A young man lives in a place where the word "I" does not have meaning. It is a society where there are no individuals. It is, however, a place where you strive to serve your brothers. Equality 7-2521 was taught from birth that the individual is not important. He is in a crazed society where the only form of government is collectivism. Their religion is one of few forces holding this disarranged society from spinning out of control. â€Å"We are nothing. Mankind is all.† (21). Equality, at age 21, has absolutely no freedom. There are three steps to a person’s education when entering the society as defined by the book Anthem. When a child is born they are placed in the House of Infants until they are five years old. There they stay with other children born the same year. After the House of Infants they are sent to the House of Students. They stay in the House of Students until they are fifteen years of age when they enter the work force. Members of a board decide the final step of a person’s education. â€Å"Their hair was white and their faces were cracked as the clay of a dry river bed† (26). Each profession has a housing center and trains the citizens to the specific profession, also known as a â€Å"house†. In this section, his dream of going to the House of Scholars is lost and he is sent to the House of Street Sweepers instead. Here the rules are very strict. He is not allowed to laugh or sing for any reason. Entertainment was a part of daily life for all citizens within this society. Every day they would sing three hymns and watch a play after that. Among the three hymns were â€Å"†¦The Hymn of Brotherhood, and the Hymn of equality, and the Hymn of the Collective Spirit† (27). These were the only two forms of entertainment the workers had time for. All other time was spent working their jobs, eating, sleeping, and/or meeting with fellow workers. Entertainment was a prized piece of their society. Entertainment was the only part of society that kept the citizens content. Without entertainment daily the citizens would have not had such strong beliefs in the group and most likely would have overthrown the government. The science and technology of the society is very underdeveloped. Glass and simple candles were some of the newest inventions. Anthem :: essays research papers Anthem A young man lives in a place where the word "I" does not have meaning. It is a society where there are no individuals. It is, however, a place where you strive to serve your brothers. Equality 7-2521 was taught from birth that the individual is not important. He is in a crazed society where the only form of government is collectivism. Their religion is one of few forces holding this disarranged society from spinning out of control. â€Å"We are nothing. Mankind is all.† (21). Equality, at age 21, has absolutely no freedom. There are three steps to a person’s education when entering the society as defined by the book Anthem. When a child is born they are placed in the House of Infants until they are five years old. There they stay with other children born the same year. After the House of Infants they are sent to the House of Students. They stay in the House of Students until they are fifteen years of age when they enter the work force. Members of a board decide the final step of a person’s education. â€Å"Their hair was white and their faces were cracked as the clay of a dry river bed† (26). Each profession has a housing center and trains the citizens to the specific profession, also known as a â€Å"house†. In this section, his dream of going to the House of Scholars is lost and he is sent to the House of Street Sweepers instead. Here the rules are very strict. He is not allowed to laugh or sing for any reason. Entertainment was a part of daily life for all citizens within this society. Every day they would sing three hymns and watch a play after that. Among the three hymns were â€Å"†¦The Hymn of Brotherhood, and the Hymn of equality, and the Hymn of the Collective Spirit† (27). These were the only two forms of entertainment the workers had time for. All other time was spent working their jobs, eating, sleeping, and/or meeting with fellow workers. Entertainment was a prized piece of their society. Entertainment was the only part of society that kept the citizens content. Without entertainment daily the citizens would have not had such strong beliefs in the group and most likely would have overthrown the government. The science and technology of the society is very underdeveloped. Glass and simple candles were some of the newest inventions.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Letter to the reader Essay

To The Readers In my portfolio I will be writing about varies of things such as Georgia 411 Interest Inventory, My Career Choice, Autobiographical Incident Essay, and Persuasive Essay & Narrative Essay. In these essays you will get different types of emotions from me. Let me break down what it is that I will be writing about in the essays. First in my Georgia 411 Interest Inventory essay it’ll be about what type of learner am I? And what types of careers match your skills. Â  Secondly in my Career Choice essay I’ll be writing about a college/career dedicated to the future career I choose. The main point of this essay will be to research my career choice and create a plan of action including the amount of education required and prepare myself to be able to interview for the position in the future. Now my third essay is about an Autobiographical Incident that impacted my life in some way. How did the incident affect me? What were some thoughts during the experience? What are my thoughts on it now? This essay is something that means a lot to me because it impacted my life in so many ways. It was kind of hard trying to type up this paper without crying but it was well worth it in the end; because it brought back memories that I tried to forget. Fourthly, my essay is a Persuasive Essay it’ll be written to convince someone to adopt my beliefs on a topic. Â  Most of all lastly, my last essay is a Narrative Essay a fictional story of my very own. I do hope you all enjoy what I created in my portfolio.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Qnt 561 Week 4

Individual Assignment: Week 4 QNT 561 November 1, 2010 Lee Chang Question 5 In the following situations, decide whether you would use a personal interview, telephone survey, or self-administered questionnaire. Give your reasons. a) A survey of the residents of a new subdivision on why they happened to select that area in which to live. You also wish to secure some information about what they like and do not like about life in the subdivision. In this situation I would use a personal interview to acquire the desired information.Many subdivisions have an interview process before with the association to fit the required profile of the neighborhood and some of the information can be obtained at the initial interview. After some time passes a follow up interview can be conducted to acquire the rest of the information. In addition minimal staff is needed to conduct the surveys and get the information which means a lower cost. This will also lead to good cooperation from the new residents o f the sub-division. b. A poll of students at Metro University on their preferences among three candidates who are running for president of the student government. For this situation I would choose a personal interview. On many campuses these types of surveys are administered by a volunteer student group. The use of the groups means less overhead costs making the personal interviews favorable and able to endure for weeks before the vote. For the participants there will be a higher level of cooperation as opposed to telephone and or self-administered survey.In addition follow-up question can be asked leading to more in-depth analysis of the perception of the candidates. The only disadvantage in this situation would be participants unwillingness to talk to strangers on campus. b) A survey of 58 wholesale grocery companies, scattered over the eastern United States, on their personnel management policies for warehouse personnel. For surveying 58 grocery companies over the eastern seaboar d I would use a telephone survey.The telephone survey could be conducted by a trained interviewer who would be able to extract the information pertaining to the personnel management policies for warehouse personnel. The telephone survey allows the company to expand the geographic coverage with minimal cost although in some situations this will increase costs in this situation all being on the east coast time can be arranged to reach all 58 wholesale companies. c) A survey of financial officers of the Fortune 500 corporations to learn their predictions for the economic outlook in their industries in the next year.Given the nature of the survey I would use a self administered survey. With the need to reach a large geographic sample for the fortune 500 a self administered survey would be the most appropriate. Many of these surveys have been conducted in previous years and the use of the internet and email would be the best to reach all of the FOs and obtained the desired information. T he Financial Officers are relatively impossible to reach so the self-administered survey is the best option.In addition this is the lowest cost option given the minimal staff needed to tabulate the predictions for the economic outlook in their respective industries for the up-coming year. Looking at the level of sophistication of the information more complex tools can be utilized for the self-administered survey. d) A study of applicant requirements, job tasks, and performance expectations as part of a job analysis of student work-study jobs on a college campus of 2,000 students, where 1,500 are involved in the work-study program. This survey would be best conducted by a phone survey.To reach 2,000 students and obtain the amount of information needed for the study a phone survey would be best. With work study there will be hard-to-reach participants using a phone survey and a computerized random dialing system will be the most efficient survey method. Although some participants may not be reached due to not working numbers and some incomplete responses the benefits out way the disadvantages.References: Cooper, D. R. & Schindler, P. S. (2006). Business research methods (9th ed. ). Boston: McGraw Hill/Irwin.

Linguistics Classes, Verb and Noun

â€Å"Discuss and contrast some of the main features of the classes VERB and NOUN in English and any other language. † In this essay I will make an attempt to discuss differences between two classes of lexemes, which are verb and noun. In order to conduct that analysis in a detailed manner I will refer to two languages, English and Polish (minor references to French will also help my studies). I will start from defining what one can refer to as class in linguistics. I will to refer to certain shadows of doubt that may be casted on that categorization.This will be followed by elaborating subtleties of what constitutes a verb providing examples and showing contrasts between two languages examined. With the help of studying materials I’ll manage to outline empirical criteria for how the concept of verb can be understood by a linguist. Then, I will implement similar methodology to clarify the concept of a noun class. Finally I will arrive at a conclusion that beyond any dou bt those two categories are distinctly different and minor similarities emphasized by two drastically different languages simply make the case more interesting.A scholar is able to divide every language into two diverse, but mutually supplementing, categories. Grammar is a set of closed system that determines how items of the language interact with each other. Lexicon, on the other hand provides a glossary of lexemes. Lexeme is more than a word, as it refers to all possible variations of linguistic items used within language. Its relation to the meaning can sometimes proves difficult to define without implementing a variety of terms in the definition. To fully explain what a given lexeme means it has to be placed in a variety of contexts and supported with examples.An alternative to lexicon is called a thesaurus and it groups words accordingly to their semantic similarities. Lexicon can be further divided into classes of lexemes. Unlike grammar, these systems of lexical concepts are open, which means their content varies depending on the language. Before drawing the line between nouns and verbs I’d like to draw attention to possible blurs of that line. In English language words such as [walk] relate to both a noun and a verb. This is not exactly a homonym (lexeme that has the same form but varies in its meaning) as both words refer to the same activity.Interesting comparison with the Polish language is that it never uses verbs as noun but still has large variety of verb derived nouns such as zapalenie (inflammation) or skojarzenie (association). Despite that fact verb derived noun in Polish such as bieg (a run) is not its noun form of the verb – bieganie (running). It also contains a significantly smaller number of homonyms, most of which either differs in spelling (kot-kod) or has a foreign origin (pilot – tv remote and pilot – one that steers a plane) and is usually a noun. English uses multiple homonyms within different classes a nd semantic distances: pitch, division.As no universal differentiation can be drawn for classes of verb and noun they are most commonly identified by several categories of lexemes. Verb in every language refers to motion, rest, giving, affect, corporeal, attention and speaking. Some languages allow further distinction to nuclear and non-nuclear verbs. Nuclear verb of rest in Polish would be lezec (means to lay, applied to either an object or a person) and the non-nuclear item that can be defined only by a reference to the nuclear verb – zalegac (to lay somewhere for a long time/to stand in the way of everyday activities).English, on the other hand cannot provide a good example of such a lexical item. A scholar can also mark off verbs to be transitive or non-transitive. A transitive verb needs to be completed by an object of the action (We left John. ) while the intransitive is complete without any object to follow (We could not stand it so we left. ). In Polish transitive (pr zesuwac – to move an object) are entirely different words than intransitive verbs (skakac – to jump). Categories that will only refer to verbs class are modality and tense aspect.Both in Polish and English future past and present tenses occur, however in Polish perfect tenses are only implied by the context: Patrze na niego od godziny – I’ve been watching him for an hour. What’s also fascinating is that in past and future continuous tense Polish verbs suddenly have gender. Discussing modality it’s worth mentioning that in Polish imperative mode of a verb is always a different form any regular conjugation (which wouldn’t be the case in French). English modality is most likely to be contained within the context of the sentence.Comparing these languages from the perspective of verbs scholar should also bear in mind that while English has phrasal verbs (put it off) that are quite different from their lexeme of origin (put) Polish does not . I’d risk a statement that this function is associated with a complex system of prefixes (wlaczyc, wylaczyc – turn on, turn off). Following the applied logic one ought to explain the lexical class of noun with its typical references. Nouns describe parts of the human body and components of other things, fauna, flora, sun moon and stars, elements, and artefacts.They also stand for abstract terms such as emotions, colour or time. Latter one often leads to interesting observations when examined from a linguistic perspective. In Polish and French instead of asking for the time, one asks for the number of the hour. A noun could be derived from verbs or adjectives (swim, hatred) or underived (beauty, fish). Dixon stated that transitivity value of verbs is equally important to the gender of the noun. In English nouns don’t have gender, while in Polish and French even objects have gender. Distribution of gender qualities within these lexemes can be conditioned by the c ontext of culture.It’s also often implied by vowel suffix in French and Polish (e in French and a in Polish). Nouns can take singular form or plural form when added a suffix (s in English and i in Polish). There are exceptions both grammatical (fish) and mass-nouns (mud). Some languages include use of a possessive suffix, however neither English nor Polish would be an example. Class of nouns also includes generic terms, which mean a word that can mean a variety of things depending on the implied intention. An example that is close to perfection is the noun â€Å"thing† which can stand for any other noun.It can as well be a feature of speech style. Curious detail is, when translated, the word thing in Polish can take two forms (cos/rzecz), both have a similar meaning but are used in different context and the latter one has a female gender. Less obvious example would be a Polish word wiersz, which can refer to a poem as well as to a single text line. According to scholar s like Marantz certain lexical items can be used in a variety of syntactic structure and implementation of any lexicon, therefore classes such as nouns or verbs are entirely futille.I beg to differ as the summary of my analysis shows multiple differences and distinctive features of each class. Verbs and nouns are defined with a variety of different concepts. Every additional term that refers to categories within a class is like an additional dimension, which outline boundaries of semantic field necessary for understanding the concept. Therefore, provides a valuable methodology for linguistic studies. Blake Lezenski Word Count: 1235 Bibliography: R. M. W. Dixon, 2012. Basic Linguistic Theory Volume 3: Further Grammatical Topics. Edition 1. Oxford University Press, USA. Erkelens, M. A. , 2009.Learning to categorize verbs and nouns: studies on Dutch. Ultrecht: Amsterdam Center for Language and Communication ————————— Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€œ [ 1 ]. Dixon R. M. W. Dixon, 2012. Basic Linguistic Theory Volume 3: Further Grammatical Topics. Edition 1. Oxford University Press, USA, p. 290. [ 2 ]. Ibid 291. [ 3 ]. Ibid 291. [ 4 ]. Ibid 300. [ 5 ]. Ibid 293. [ 6 ]. Ibid 300. [ 7 ]. Ibid 305. [ 8 ]. Ibid 291. [ 9 ]. Ibid 302. [ 10 ]. Ibid 301. [ 11 ]. Erkelens, M. A. , 2009. Learning to categorize verbs and nouns: studies on Dutch. Ultrecht: Amsterdam Center for Language and Communication, p. 26.