Monday, September 30, 2019
In 1914, the early modernism critic Clive Bell wrote, The representative component in a work of art may or may non be harmful, ever it is irrelevant. Or, to appreciate a work of art we need conveying with us nil from life, no cognition of its thoughts and personal businesss, no acquaintance with its elements.Discuss the adequateness of this claim with mention to Expressionist, Fauve and Cubist art. On review of Claude Monet Ã¢â¬Ës celebrated 1872 picture, Ã¢â¬ËImpression Ã¢â¬â Dawn Ã¢â¬Ë , one may detect its capable composing of visible radiation and atmosphere, the ocular effects of mist, fume and cloudy contemplations in the soiled H2O of a seaport ; it is the record of a fugitive minute, a glance of the Sun as it rises through the quickly fade outing mists of morning which, merely seconds subsequently, would hold risen further and changed the whole atmosphere of the scene. Monet, Degas, Pissarro and their creative person coevalss, slightly sardonically named after this renowned innovator piece, exhibited eight times before the 1890s and yet by the bend of the 20th century the Impressionists were being challenged by one of the cardinal elements of their graphics. The morning seaport, lily ponds, danseuses and elusive suburban landscapes that consumed the Impressionist canvas captured a world with which there was a turning clime offive de sieclemalaise. The representative component in a work of art that Clive Bell describes in his 1914 seminal treatise,Art, was cluttered with the irrelevances of literature, scientific discipline and engineering that detracted from the kernel of art as a important signifier composed of strictly aesthetic, instead than realistic, signifiers. Discontentment with the thought that art simply replicated life this new strain of modern creative person approached the easel in order to show instead than depict, to make instead than copy, and therefore the Impressionists dissolved into a fugitive minute of art history. Western art had become preoccupied with an art that embraced the realistic rendition of landscapes and figures, where creative persons worked in forepart of their topics, in the unfastened air instead than in a studio, taking full advantage of the proficient progresss being made in the industry of creative persons Ã¢â¬Ë pigments to capture a true feeling of the effects of visible radiation and coloring material. In the early 1900s on the outskirts of Paris Henri Matisse besides preferred to travel out into the streets and do painted Ã¢â¬Ëimpressions Ã¢â¬Ë of the streets, the Bridgess, the river, in fact the same subjects that the Impressionists had chosen in the1860s and 1870s. The pictures Matisse made of Notre Dame, nevertheless, had small to make with the atmospheric effects sought by Monet and Pissarro. Rather, he exploited a new reading of world where wide countries of pigment and the reorganization of infinite were cardinal to an of import artistic motion that the Fauvists were shortly to open up: I did non desire to follow a conventional manner of picture ; I wanted to revolutionize wonts and modern-day life Ã¢â¬â to emancipate nature, to liberate it from the authorization of old theories and classicalism I was filled neither with green-eyed monster or hatred, but I felt a enormous impulse to animate a new universe seen through my ain eyes, a universe which was wholly mine. Henri Matisse, Andr & A ; eacute ; Derain and Maurice Vlaminck evolved this new universe through a manner of painting that earned them the name Les Fauves ( wild animals ) , and, in the brief period between 1904 and 1907 their freedom of look through the usage of pure colorss, additive design and overdone position secured a measure off from the representative component upheld by the Impressionists before them. Matisse Ã¢â¬Ës 1904 picture Ã¢â¬ËLuxe, Calme et Volupt & A ; eacute ; Ã¢â¬Ë can about be viewed as a Fauvist pronunciamento, a disclosure to his circle of coevalss who admired his subjective usage of coloring material, the manner the bare figures had been simplified to the point of ornament and the placing of tree, boat and shoreline to unite the image surface into a individual plane. Through his art Matisse questioned an full heritage of landscape tradition and lead others to oppugn it excessively ; in forepart of this image I understood all the new rules ; Impressionism lost its appeal for me as I contemplated this miracle of imaginativeness produced by pulling and coloring materials. Later work of the Fauves demonstrates freedom from the realistic representation that Bell upheld as irrelevant, but remained concerned with utilizing coloring material for its ain interest. Derain sought a manner out of the deadlock of his fellow Fauvists, experimenting with concepts of a more solid and touchable world within the being of the picture, and it was Apollinaire who remarked that the Cubist aesthetic was foremost elaborated in the head of Andr & A ; eacute ; Derain. To convey nil from life, no cognition of its thoughts and personal businesss and no acquaintance with its elements spilled from a diaphanous impression in Fauvist art into a apparent purpose with creative persons with Cubist understandings. In a blazing renunciation of a tradition that dated back to at least the 14th century, a tradition that equated good picture with retroflexing observed light and signifier, creative persons such as Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso were utilizing their canvases to make a ocular experience of the universe. Art conveyances us from the universe of adult male Ã¢â¬Ës activity to a universe of aesthetic ecstasy. For a minute we are shut off from human involvements ; our expectancies and memories are arrested ; we are lifted above the watercourse of life. The pure mathematician rapt in his surveies knows a province of head which I take to be similar, if non indistinguishable. See Picasso Ã¢â¬Ës 1909 picture Ã¢â¬ËHouses on the Hill, Horta d'Ebro Ã¢â¬Ë and one can clearly see how this illustration of daring art can transport its witness to a universe of aesthetic ecstasy. Every seeable surface is broken down into comparatively distinct, comparatively level surfaces to organize a series of aspects, a assortment of quasi-geometric forms, while multiple point of views render the houses from a figure of coincident point of views. See besides Braque Ã¢â¬Ës 1909 Ã¢â¬ËCastle at la Roche-Guyon Ã¢â¬Ë where the cardinal block of edifices in the landscape hovers and spills across both the foreground and background of the piece doing them into accessible, haptic entities with which the witness can prosecute. Braque and Picasso transformed painted landscape into a designed Cubist infinite, manipulated signifiers through artistic look and imaginativeness that bore small resemblance to the surface ( shallow ) world of being. Cubist image infinite has little regard for perspectival infinite, in which solid objects merely of all time recede from the witness, and where infinite itself is ever empty or hollow. In his contemplations on the Avant-garde Clement Greenberg notes that if art and literature are imitation, so what we have here is the imitation of copying. Art as an look, or imitation of imitating, as opposed to a mere representation of life, is a impression that has arguably been exploited legion times during the history of art, during periods of crisis and turbulence, but expressionist art became a preoccupation of its ain during the early portion of the Twentieth Century. The Expressionist art of Wassily Kandinsky nowadayss simplified landscapes and experiments in abstract art, where glowing colorss and ardent brushstrokes convey the work Ã¢â¬Ës intending straight to the witness. In his 1911 Ã¢â¬ËImprovisation No. 23 Ã¢â¬Ë Kandinsky seems to delight in the additive motion of the lines, forms and infinites and literally improvises a design that is about musical in its hypnotic concepts of quasi-staves, points and mock-clefs. In an art-consciousness manner beyond the familiar surfaces of life and the creative persons who sought to animate them, Kandinsky painted in order to link the ocular affair of art to the interior life of adult male. A similar Expressionist phenomenon was germinating in the work of Franz Marc who besides moved off from object-orientated art to an art of lyrical look, haunted by animate beings which represented the lost artlessness of adult male. For these creative persons unnaturalistic colorss, deigned infinites, the beat of nature, symbolic and brooding images constituted the chase for look: Picasso, Braque, Mondrian, Mir & A ; oacute ; , Kandinsky, Brancusi, even Klee, Matisse and C & A ; eacute ; zanne derive their main inspiration from the medium they work in. The exhilaration of their art seems to lie in its pure preoccupation with the innovation and agreement of infinites, surfaces, forms and colorss, etc. , to the exclusion of whatever is non needfully implicated in these factors. Clive Bell Ã¢â¬Ës axiom, that art requires nil from life, no cognition of its thoughts and personal businesss, no acquaintance with its elements is clearly demonstrated in the art motions that evolved out of the representative art at the bend of the Twentieth Century. Reactionary against the Impressionistic rendition of objects the Fauvists, Cubists and Expressionists exploited a impression that art should abandon the representative component that had held art in a headlock for centuries in favor of look and heightened attending to the media or stuffs with which they created their art. While novelists explored the job of novel authorship in plants such asUlyssesandThe Forgers, composers drew attending to the really concepts of their music and ocular creative persons made the redolent map of coloring material and organize their recurrent Ã¢â¬Ësubject affair. Ã¢â¬Ë Bell identifies possibly one of the most of import premises in Avant-Garde art and arguably the subsequent advancement of art through the Twentieth Century owes a great debt to the critic who mused: What I have to state is this: the rapt philosopher, and he who contemplates a work of art, populate a universe with an intense and curious significance of its ain ; that significance is unrelated to the significance of life. In this universe the emotions of life find no topographic point. It is a universe with emotions of its ain. Bibliography Bell, Clive:Art, Oxford University Press, Great Britain, 1987 Gaiger, Jason and Wood, Paul ( ed. ) :Art of theTwentieth Century: A Reader, Open University, Great Britain, 2003 Greenberg, Clement:The Collected Essays andCriticism: Percepts and Judgments 1939 Ã¢â¬â 1944,The University of ChicagoPress, USA, 1988 Stangos, Nikos ( ed. ) :Concepts of Modern Art: Fauvism to Postmodernism, Thames and Hudson, Singapore, 1997 Wood, Paul and Edwards, Steven ( erectile dysfunction ) :Art of theAvant-Gardes, Open University, USA, 2004
Sunday, September 29, 2019
The term Ã¢â¬Å"ethnicÃ¢â¬ when in conjunction with the word Ã¢â¬Å"literatureÃ¢â¬ in the academic discourse community of students, often brings out mixed feelings of excitement and dread. On the one hand, students understand that they will be getting away from the canonical American literature Ã¢â¬â which can equal boring in their eyes; on the other hand, students interpret the term Ã¢â¬Å"ethnic literatureÃ¢â¬ to mean distinctive Ã¢â¬â which can equal confusing or ambiguous Ã¢â¬â and perhaps at times not relatable because it is outside their scope of experiences. Perhaps before jumping into why it matters, the term Ã¢â¬Å"ethnic literatureÃ¢â¬ should be defined first and because I am still learning how to interpret this term myself, I searched for a suitable one I could agree with. I found one in an article entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Assessing TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ Knowledge of Multi-Ethnic LiteratureÃ¢â¬ , and the article actually used another source themselves to come up with a workable, laymanÃ¢â¬â¢s definition. Ethnic literature as defined by D.E. Norton (as the articleÃ¢â¬â¢s source) is, Ã¢â¬Å"Literature about racial or ethnic minority groups that are culturally and socially different from the white Anglo-Saxon majority in the United States, whose largely middle-class values and customs are most represented in American literatureÃ¢â¬ (qtd. in Hager & Thompson 22). I think this definition works well to define what ethnic literature is on a surface level, but the more I dig in, I feel that this idea goes much deeper. I asked myself, who can write about ethnic literature? Can anyone just pick up a pen so to speak and tell a story about a young Japanese boy, or a Hispanic family? Can an African-American writer write about Hispanic or Chinese people and claim it is ethnic literature? And the answer to myself is no. Why? Because unless that African-American has been submersed in the Hispanic or Japanese culture from the time of childhood, how are they going to capture the very essence of being, thinking, and living day-to-day in that culture? And even if that African-American had, they would still most likely have a different perspective from the average Hispanic or Chinese person because of being different themselves (i.e black) and perhaps are treated different by the community at large which corrupts the Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ cultural thinking. At this deeper level I am trying to get at, I find John M. ReillyÃ¢â¬â¢s article Ã¢â¬Å"Criticism of Ethnic Literature: Seeing the Whole StoryÃ¢â¬ helpful in acquiring this. He states that, Ã¢â¬Å"the assertion of ethnicity in literature can be made only through a procedure by which the writer resolves formal problemsÃ¢â¬ ¦ what moves from recognition of identity to creation of a strategy for handling reality still is not literature until the individual author sustains her or his ethnic identity through a sequence of formal choicesÃ¢â¬ (4). I am interpreting this to mean that as a reader of this literature, I should see and feel throughout the story (perhaps subtlety) that in some way, the characters mindset (and perhaps actions) in the story differ from my own specifically because of the culture they have grown up in in, which has shaped that characterÃ¢â¬â¢s thinking. There are thoughts and feelings Ã¢â¬â ideas, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand without further explanation from the author, which is sometimes provided, and sometimes not. An example of this is in Brando SkyhorseÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Madonnas of Echo Park, I find myself wondering what the significance of the jacaranda trees mentioned in different parts of the book. Looking up what they are, it becomes apparent to me as jacaranda trees are native to Central America Ã¢â¬â roots back to their homeland. The blossoms from the trees fall and are scattered everywhere. Felicia in chapter 2 states that Ã¢â¬Å"thereÃ¢â¬â¢s no way getting away from themÃ¢â¬ (25). Basically meaning, you cannot escape who you are and where you come from. I would not have understood this had I not explored the history of that tree to uncover the significance in the book. Another example is in Seventeen Syllables in the story Ã¢â¬Å"Seventeen SyllablesÃ¢â¬ . The story about a Japanese family is easy to read, but is hard to connect with as I donÃ¢â¬â¢t share the same philosophies about a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s place in the Japanese culture. A specific instance in the story was when Mrs. Hayashi, RosieÃ¢â¬â¢s mother received her the first place prize for her stellar Haiku. When the man from the newspaper presented her with a package, Mrs. Hayashi, stating she knew it was unorthodox, asked if she might open it because she was very curious. (Yamamoto 17). At this point, I am thinking to myself, Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t get it Ã¢â¬â why wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t she open it?Ã¢â¬ but upon reflection, I considered the patriarchal society that is dominant in this culture, and perhaps it is the wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s obligation to consult or have the husband open the gift, even if it is not specifically for him. Yet another example is in Oscar Wao by Junot Diaz. To come specifically to the point, I do not understand this idea of why it is understood that Dominican men are supposed to be these Ã¢â¬Å"manly menÃ¢â¬ that women flock to and fall on their knees for. That the sexual appetite along with innate sense of charisma from Dominican men is expected, and when itÃ¢â¬â¢s lacking, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t go unnoticed. Ã¢â¬Å"Anywhere else his triple-zero batting average with the ladies might have passed without comment, but this is a Dominican kid weÃ¢â¬â¢re talking about, in a Dominican family: dude was supposed to have Atomic Level G, was supposed to be pulling in the bitches with both handsÃ¢â¬ (24). Why is this idea so indoctrinated in this culture according to the book? This is perhaps something I will never understand, except that it is a part of their culture. All of these examples are all good and well, but the important question is why is ethnic literature important? What can be gained from reading it? From a most basic viewpoint, it is a highly effective vehicle for helping people understand themselves and the world around them. Thompson and Hager in their article state that, Ã¢â¬Å"multi-ethnic literature mirrors and validates the experiences for minority groups and juxtaposes the familiar with the less familiar for mainstream childrenÃ¢â¬ (22). In other words, through reading ethnic literature, readers can find ways to connect with others around them that are different. The article also states that when readers are exposed to divergent thoughts, language patterns, value systems, and different ways of living, that it can open up awareness about others and create compassion and understanding towards them that might not have happened without the literary exposure (23). To sum it all up, I will never argue against the instruction of ethnic literature in the school setting. In fact, I think teaching it should begin right from the beginning in kindergarten, and perhaps one day we wonÃ¢â¬â¢t need the designated term Ã¢â¬Å"ethnic literatureÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â perhaps one day it can just be Ã¢â¬Å"American LiteratureÃ¢â¬ and part of the regular American canon of literature. Works Cited Diaz, Junot. The Brief and Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao. New York: Penguin, 2007. Print. Reilly, John. M. Ã¢â¬Å"Criticism of Ethnic Literature: Seeing the Whole StoryÃ¢â¬ . Critical Approaches to Ethnic Literature. 5.1 (1978): 2-13. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. Skyhorse, Brando. The Madonnas of Echo Park. New York: Free Press, 2010. Print. Thompson, Deborah L. and Jane Meeks Hager. Ã¢â¬Å"Assessing TeachersÃ¢â¬â¢ Knowledge of Multi-Ethnic LiteratureÃ¢â¬ . Yearbook of the American Reading Forum. 1990. 21-29. Web. 21 Apr. 2012. Yamamoto, Hisaye. Seventeen Syllables. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2001. Print.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
On Cafe Co - Case Study Example The model prescribes that people must not be only seen as factors which would help a company in earning competitive advantage. Rather care must be taken in rendering their own developments by steadily incorporating their views in business decision making. This fact would improve the leadership traits within such individuals and thereby would improve loyalty to the concern (Armstrong, 2008, p.8). In regards to the case study it is observed that the previous human resource policy in the concern focused more on developing the performances and productivity of the employees. However the reviewed human resources policy after the joining of Kim Patel started focusing more on developing communication with the people by widely engaging them into various decision making activities. Thus the human resources policy structure in Cafe Co earned a shift from hard to soft after joining of Kim Patel and thus worked in developing loyalty of the employees. 2. In several organisations nowadays it is found that the line managers are being entrusted with the responsibility of recruiting, developing and training the human resources that would be working under them. This fact has some salient advantages in that it helps the human resource management of the company in delegating the organisational tasks and thus causes effective distribution of labour. The line managers in such action are required to operate in close cooperation with the human resource professionals for helping in accomplishment of business objectives (Armstrong, 2006, p.93-96). In this case it is also found that Kim Patel worked closely in delegating the human resource functions to the line managers. She observed that such practice would help in developing relationships with the line managers in that they would become more responsible and loyal to the company. Thus this process was carried out in a continual fashion in the
Friday, September 27, 2019
Problem Set on Price Levels and Open Economy Macro - Essay Example 2. When national income rises due to increased payments, imports are likely to increase in value relative to exports and as a result, the external value of the currency will depreciate thus weakening real and nominal exchange rates in the long run. For example, the 1986 fall in the price of oil led to a depreciation of the sterling pound on the foreign-exchange market. On the other hand, a reduction in national income reduces import in value relative to exports the resultant effect being the appreciation of external value of currency thus strengthening real and nominal exchange rates in the long run. 3. Factors such as indirect taxes, subsidies and transport costs may change prices of goods in a country but not affect the exchange rates. If a country imposes tariff on imports from abroad, the price in the home market would rise but since less foreign currency would be spent on it, the long run exchange rate will tend to improve. The long run nominal exchange rate will also improve. 4. Short-term capital moves from one country to another as changes take place in the rate of interest being offered by each country.
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Company law - gambotto pinciples - Essay Example In regards to this case, Michael Yew Seong Chin in his article Being in the Minority: The CompulsoryAcquisition of Shares writes: century of company law they were virtually defenseless... In 1995, the High Court of Australia delivered a corporate law decision that led to a maelstrom of publicity and controversy. This was the Gambotto v WCP Ltd which significantly altered common law governing amendments to a company's articles of association. Gambotto ushered in a In the original case trial Judge Mclelland J, injuncted the expropriation on the basis that majority shareholders were unjustly oppressing the minority shareholders. That decision was reversed by the Court of Appeal. Here the court noted that the expropriated shareholders received fair compensation for their shares. Using a contraction approach, Priestly J pointed to the fact that the shareholders on becoming members, agreed to become bound by duly passed resolutions, and Meagher JA pointed out that there were enormous tax advantages for the corporation and compensation was fair (Whincop 11). Unhappy with the Priestly/Meagher decision, Gambotto went back to the Court of Appeal and a final decision was reached by Mchugh J: Mchugh determined that the business objective was proper since it ena
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Skin put - Assignment Example The basic reason behind this research analysis was to take the opinion of the public about the product. The results of the research study are showing the concerns of the people regarding the skinput technology. Most of the young people are supporting it whereas some other critics are also augmenting on the sensitivity of the skinput technology. Mostly people are of the opinion that this gadget is useful and easy to use for giving commands etc. The level of creativity and innovation is very high in this Microsoft product Skinput. Despite all such advantages people argue that the price of the technology is high. They may not be able to afford it. The cost aspect is very important from both sides, i.e. customer and the company (Beirut 1). Many of the critics also argue that the health issues related to the technology. Initially the mobile phone technology also faced many argument regarding harmful rays and signals, which may disturb the natural audible sense of a person. It is the case with this MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s skinput technology. People are very much concerned that either it would harm the body or not. Obviously when the device is directly connected to the human body, the people may get suspicious about its effects. Some people also argue on the small size of the skinput device. The small size of the device may reduce the function ability of the product. The skinput device as compare to other digital devices, which are larger and thus provide a wide space for the viewers, may irritate people. In order to make the product more popular and famous in the public the marketing managers must focus on the advertising and promotion of the technology. The product will be successful when people will replace their existing mobile phones with this skinput technology. A true advertising campaign actually gives benefit when people perceive the specific product as the necessary item of their
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
The Orientation Problem - Assignment Example Therefore, the task is like to either swim or sink to them as they are given any written information about the roots and idea about the assigned location. They do not get any kind of help from the supervisors rather they are berated for delivery time and routes. The delivery time may be long as they are not aware about the assigned due lack of training. The employees try to learn roots by studying maps on the day off but practically it cannot help to them. Again the letter carriers are shifted from one route to another very frequently but they need time to understand the sequence of delivering articles in a particular root. Frequent shifting increases the overall duties of the entire letter careers as none of them cannot learn a particular rout properly. Answer 2 The supervisors should provide two important types of orientation to the new employees i.e. letter carriers at work sites. First is Organization orientation where the supervisor should make them informed brief about the orga nization where they have joined i.e. objective, history, philosophy, mission, procedures, rules and policies. Second types of orientation are unit based orientation where the supervisor should familiarize the new employees about their job activities and work units. The direct supervisor should provide all necessary information to the employees about a particular facility and its personal, assigned area covered by the routes and other written information like employee handbook and union contact etc. Answer 3 The supervisors should be given on job training where they can consequences of their mistakes which leads to overall loss in terms of output of their employees and the decline in performance level. In this training program the superiors will be informed about the efficient strategies followed by leading private carrier organizations. They will train them by visiting the areas through shorter routes in less time. This would motivate them as it would increase the daily output and o verall performance of their supervising units. Another types training is in house training program where they will be trained about motivation strategies which they need to implement on the new employees to understand their problems and difficulties regarding job activities and to increase the individual as well overall performance of work units. The supervisor will be informed about the benefits of basic motivations to the employees will lead to more output than expectance (Nkomo, Fottler & McAfee, 2010, p.174). Answer 4 The supervisor needs to supplement some important written documents to the new letter carriers. These should be only the employee handbook and union contact no but some other important materials which includes information about different employee benefits, no of holidays in a financial year, some copies of certain legal forms, like IRS withholding forms, brief about accident an emergency procedures, key official terms in the US postal service department, alternativ e copies of life and health insurance options, telephone and location directory of the personnel department and other important city offices. Apart from these, detailed explanation of the overall operation of the US Postal Service and mission of the organizations. In this detailed explanation of organizational operation, the job duties and responsibilities of the letter carrier, work
Monday, September 23, 2019
Business Law - Essay Example C.Ã Ã With one of the legal issues you identified above, check with a legal web-site, as a reference that gives you greater understanding of this issue, so that you can describe the general rule of law about this issue, and any significant exceptions. As an employee, you have the right to raise a claim of discrimination by the employer only if you belong to a protected class. A protected class implies that you are fully qualified for the job. In such a case, the employer takes negative actions against you particularly by filling your position with an unqualified employee who does not fit in the protected class. If you want to raise the claim, you must either have circumstantial or direct evidence. The book serves as a special dedication to employees and employers. It provides guidance and information regarding legal employment issues. The workplace laws enacted by the state legislatures, congress, and local government meant to bring just for both parties. The book also highlights a case law that pertains to decisions made on precedent cases. Other critical issues addressed in the books are such as employment contract, companyÃ¢â¬â¢s personnel, collective-bargaining agreement, and civil service rules. The book also focuses on federal laws and, in particular, the different kinds of employment laws. In the first category, the book addresses the anti-discrimination legislation. According to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 title VII, employment discrimination based on religion, color, pregnancy, race, sex and national origin is prohibited. The Rehabilitation Act of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits employment discrimination against people living with disabilities. The Age Discrimination Employment Act (ADEA) forbids employment discrimination based on age. Discrimination against persons aged 40 and above is an offense. Another category addressed by the book relates to salaries and hours of work. The Fair Labor Standards Act
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Risk Management - Research Proposal Example There are several processes that are involved in corporate governance. These are monitoring and evaluation, strategic planning and others. One of the most important facets of corporate governance is risk management. It is important to note that organizations today operate within an environment that is wrought with risks and other hurdles that have to be overcome if the organisation is to succeed. The risks that the organisation is exposed to include: financial, natural disaster, security threats among others. Risk management involves the process of identifying, assessing and prioritising of risks that the organisation is faced with. This is then followed by an organised and planned application of resources at the disposal of the organisation to address this threat. The aim is to avert, control, monitor and mitigate the effects of the risk that has been identified. There are various risk management models at the disposal of the corporation. They include, but not limited to: Project Management Institute, International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) and others (Matthias & Glasgowl: 2009). This research proposal is going to address the nature of the relationship that exists between risk management and corporate governance. ... These risks might affect the ability of the organisation to attain its goals and aspirations. The effects of the risks on the organisation are multifaceted: there are positive and negative consequences to the firm. Negative impacts may involve loss of revenue, loss of clients and other effects that derail the goals set by the organisation. However, there are also positive outcomes when the firm is exposed to risk (Turnbull: 2009). It should be noted that risks are an integral part of the business' success. If the organisation does not take a risk, then it is very unlikely that they will ever move forward (Turnbull: 2009). Every business venture is a risk; it is a gamble that the organisation is taking. As a result of this, it becomes very important for the management of the firm to come up with procedures that ensure that the firm exploits the positive attributes of the risk while at the same time managing effectively the negative attributes (Turnbull: 2009). Basically, what the management is involved with is the identification and assessment of the risks that the organisation faces as it is run on a day to day basis. They very well realise that some of the risks have to be exploited in order for the organisation to attain their objectives (Matthias & Glasgowl: 2009). 1.2: Research Justifications Mamousee (2008) is of the view that there are many studies that are been conducted at any given time within any given field. This been the case, it is then very important for any researcher, before embarking on the task of conducting his research, to first justify why his research is relevant to the field. Generally, what is the value that the field will get from this particular research and why should it be supported' It is a fact
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Performance Management Framework Essay Mr. Stonefield is starting his own business in Austin, Texas, called Landslide Limousine Service. One of the fundamental elements to building this new business venture is creating a framework for performance management. The framework must include necessary employee job skills, the methods used for measuring these skills, the process for addressing skill gaps, and the approach for delivering effective performance feedback. It is important to understand how the performance management framework (PMF) aligns to the organizational business strategy. Mr. Stonefield previously stated he wants to provide first-class transportation to his customers. His goals are realistic for the first year with an anticipated -$50,000 in revenue, and 10% turnover. The success of the businessÃ¢â¬â¢s performance management will ensure there will not be any additional lost revenue, and turnover stays at, or under target. The goals set in place lay the foundation for the future of this company, and a clearly defined PMF will foster highly engaged employees and lead to continual revenue growth. It is imperative Mr. StonefieldÃ¢â¬â¢s employees have the necessary job skills to allow Landslide Limousine to achieve its goals and gain a positive reputation. A job analysis is Ã¢â¬Å"The process of obtaining information about jobs, including the tasks to be done on the jobs as well as the personal characteristics necessary to do the tasksÃ¢â¬ (Cascio, 2013, p.690). Mr. Stonefield has elected Atwood and Allen Consulting to conduct the job analysis process to identify the skills his employees will need. The job analysis process, or in this case, processes, have been identified, but additional time is required to act out these processes. The first process is observation. Ã¢â¬Å"The analyst simply observes a worker or group of workers doing a job. Without interfering, the analyst records Team Reflection: Performance Management In week 4 Team Ã¢â¬Å"DÃ¢â¬ reviewed and discussed the following information and how it applies to Landslide Limousine. Alignment of the performance management framework to the organizational business strategy, organizational performance philosophy, the job analysis process completed identifying theÃ skills needed by employees, methods used for measuring an employees skills, process for addressing skill gaps, approach for delivering effective performance feedback. Alignment of the performance management Aligning the structure of the performance management plan with the business strategy is a key element for its success. For Landslide Limousine Services, it was previously communicated that this strategy entailed providing first class transportation to its customers. Its prospective goals indicate a $50,000.00 first year net revenue, a 5% net revenue increase over the first few years, and a turnover rate of approximately 10%. In order to achieve the realistic goals set and for the business strategy to be met, you must consider what it would take to reach them. Understanding that employee loyalty will be an asset to the business is a good start. This means developing a flexible framework that expresses the companys culture and shows managements commitment to developing a strong team of employees. Providing the right training opportunities is essential for meeting business objectives. Many companies just go through the motions of a performance management plan without fully evaluating the needs of the employees to develop their morale and commitment in return. In order to provide first class transportation to its customers, opportunity for development in this area with the proper guidance and encouragement will engage employees in the direction of the companys strategy. Organizational performance philosophy Every business and its culture differ from one Introduction Creating a performance management framework ensures that Clapton Commercial Construction will achieve its business venture goals. A critical tool for a company is its performance management. It gives the employees an opportunity to succeed and for the organization to prosper. Outlined are recommendations that we here at Atwood and Allen consulting feel should be utilized to maximize the potential this company has. Performance Management For any business to be successful it is imperative that they implement aÃ performance management framework. This structure must be effective for the company to meet its goals and ensure that internal decisions are made based on the work performance of its employees. The performance management framework aligns with the business strategy because the structure is created based on the goals and vision of the business. Recommendations Clapton Commercial Constructions desire is to deliver quality top notch construction and customer service. A clear vision and realistic goals are needed to target areas of improvement. An effective performance management framework ensures consistency in reviews and brings the business success they are anticipating. It is recommended that Clapton Commercial promote growth by making sure that all employees are properly trained and feedback be analyzed from the employees and customers. The job analysis is an in-depth study of the position. It provides information for job descriptions (Job Analysis-Human Resources Management for Employers, 2011). We recommend that the employees be involved by completing a job analysis form, this is a way of collecting information about the work. Interview the employees by asking them specific questions about their job duties and make a list of the specific task performed. Also, identify the experience, education, and training levels PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ABOUT PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management involves the entire gamut of processes in identifying critical dimensions of performance setting work plans against laid down objectives, reviewing the work done against indicators of performance and developing and enhancing competencies for improved performance. THEORGANIZA TIONAL GOAL PROVIDES THE PERSPECTIVE TO DETERMINE THE DEPARTMENTA L (REGION/ THEME/UNIT) GOAL WHICH IN TURN PROVIDES THE CONTEXT FOR AN PROCEDURE FOR EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM An effective Performance Management System should be based on :a) Setting up Key Result Area (KRAs) for the Region/Theme/Unit/ Department b) Clarity of Individual Roles and Responsibilities c) Laying down Plans and PerformanceÃ Indicators for each position d) Periodic assessment of performance of the individual against such Plans/ Performance Indicators e) Identifying factors facilitating and hindering achievement of Plans development of action plans for overcoming hindering factors and strengthening facilitating factors f) Periodic review of role incumbents behavior, which contributes to effective functioning and working out action plans for developing such behavior. g) Identification of role incumbents developmental needs and preparing plans for staff development through training and related activities. h) Implementation and review. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PAGE STAGES OF MANAGING PERFORMANCE SYSTEM : 1. Identification of KRAs (Key Result Areas)Ã KRA(s) for the Organisation need to be identified and collectively agreed upon. The KRA(s) for the organization will be drawn out from the Country Strategy paper (2005-2010) which has evolved through a bottom-up approach, from consultations held with over a 1000 persons, with participation from the partners and communities AAI-India works with. KRA(s) for the organization will hold good for the Performance Management Plan Performance Management Plan HRM-531 March 17, 2014 Patrice Cloutier Mr. Stonefield, I am very happy to hear that you are considering a Performance Management Plan for your business expansion in Austin, Texas. As you may know there are sound organizational payoffs for implementing a strong performance management system. Study indicates that companies with a strong management plan is likely to outperform competitors by 51% on financial measure and by 41% on nonfinancial metrics. The performance management plan for the limousine operation with 25 employees, with a net $-50k revenue, with a growth of rate 5% for the first two years and expected rate of turnover of 10% should be straight forward. Here below I am presenting to you our recommendations for a very comprehensive performance management plan. (Cascio, 2013, P.332) The first step a business must consider is alignment of performance management to the business strategy. Once you have the vision for the Limo operation in Austin, identify the drivers or Key Performance Indicators to achieve the vision. The KPIs then can cascaded down to the functional areas then to individual level. The next step in the process should be of defining goals. The process of goal setting should be a collaborative process between a manger and the employee. Once the company wide strategy is established the strategy and the goals should be shared with each employee. This is a critical step in the process. One thing to keep in mind in goal development is that the goals should be specific, measurable, achievable and timely. Specific: Well-defined to inform employees exactly what is expected, when, and how much. Measurable: Provide milestones to track progress and motivate employees toward achievement. Achievable: Success needs to be attainable with effort by an average employee, with a bit of a stretch. Relevant: The goals should focus on the greatest impact to the overall
Friday, September 20, 2019
Economic, Environmental And Social Impacts Of Tourism Tourism is one of the largest and most dynamic international sectors. Its rapid growth, evolving infrastructure, foreign currency flows, and the introduction of advanced management techniques have influenced numerous sectors positively by contributing to social and economic development. Negative impacts Positive impacts Social Foreign influence may cause society to lose values and traditions. Locals may have their privacy invaded. Creates new job opportunities Helps implement modern ideologies. Travel helps society on a psychological level as it gives people a degree of freedom of movement. Bringing foreign expertise to the destination through conferences, therefore strengthening ties. Developing intercultural understanding Developing friendships Environmental Tourism transportation harms the environment of the destinations of origin and arrival, and pollutes during transit. Harms the destinations appeal to foreigners. Tourism may give national authorities the incentive to safeguard the environment. Economic Pollution causes strain on the national health care system, which may increase government deficit and long term debt. Local economy may suffer because of competition from other emerging destinations. Allocation of funds may be directed towards pleasing tourists rather than pleasing long-term residents. Creates employment which adds to government taxation revenue. Financial gain by stakeholders. Tourisms actual and potential impact is astounding; however such impact is not purely positive. For almost every positive impact, there happens to be a negative one. These may be subdivided into economic, environmental and social impacts, as tabulated below: Society Social contact between tourists and locals may make way for cultural appreciation through understanding, tolerance and awareness. As tourism contributes to beneficial developments in sectors such as education, why not embrace it and ensure that people continue to visit? The human aspect is crucial for the success of any tourism product. Tourists enjoy speaking to locals, and locals should be open to discourse with tourists to add value to their experience. If local culture is the base for attracting tourists to the area, it gives added incentive to preserve the local traditions and crafts which are typical to that area. In certain localities of the Maltese islands, tourists contribute significantly to the preservation of local crafts such as glass blowing and lace, as well as the maintenance of important historical monuments and structures. Although it is fortunate that tourism drives national organisations to preserve historical artifacts and monuments, it is unfortunate to know that little would be done if it were not for tourism. To maximise the positive social impacts, foreigners and locals alike must be educated. Locals must be made aware that they must care for their belongings and surroundings, and respect other cultures to make their destination more attractive on a physical and social level. On the other hand, foreigners must also be educated to ensure that they respect the traditions, cultures and surroundings of host communities. As a result of the lack of awareness amongst tourists, the fortified city of Mdina in Malta is very much disturbed by tourists. It is home to just over one hundred people, but is visited by hundreds of people on a daily basis, often running into the thousands during the summer months. The city has become such a popular attraction that the local people are beginning to feel commoditised. As a result they are developing negative attitudes towards tourists. This concept is know as Greenwashing. Greenwashing refers to the commoditisation of indigenous residents and natural surroundings, creating severe social problem. Residents are often subject to invasion of privacy as tourists fail to respect their daily lives, often gazing into peoples houses, and on many occasions, entering them to take a few quick photos. On the other hand, tourism is often beneficial in helping relatively conservative societies become more open to the world. This is the case in certain regions of Libya for instance, where state leaders have recently given the go ahead for the development of numerous sea side resorts along the coasts, as well as eco-touristic areas. As a result, Libyans may become more open to foreigners in the long run. Even though these plans have been opposed to by numerous nationals, it was done for the long term benefit of the country. During the 1980s, the Libyans were very much resistant to the changes proposed by their leaders. Foreign observers believed that the heads of states were in for a difficult time trying to convince the public of the need for social change. The importance of travel must also be pushed within companies, as it not only broadens ones perspectives but it can also help people become more productive. Travel for leisure is proven to improve psychological health by reducing stress levels. Leave from work is now obligatory in most countries around the world, simply because of the importance of leisure time. Another benefit of tourism on the structure of society may be the introduction of foreign expertise to the destination, which in turn may improve the skills of the local workforce. Foreign experts may visit a destination for conferences, through which they can develop or strengthen relationships with local entrepreneurs. As a result of such relationships, travel has given companies the possibilities to form partnerships or join affiliate programs with overseas companies. The distinctiveness of a destination is instrumental to its success, so national government or international agencies must ensure that the necessary systems are in place to avoid any sense of placelessness. Placelessness is a concept coined by E. Relph which states that places become more and more similar to each other due to globalisation. Although this may seem farfetched to some, it is still a probable scenario in the future as the world becomes even more connected. National and local governments must therefore do their utmost to promote the unique identity of the destination. For instance, Malta is the only island of its size to have its very own official language which is not spoken anywhere else in the world. Over the years Malta has been significantly influenced by foreigners, however, many of its traditions have remained intact, such as the local village feasts and the traditional Maltese folk music called ghana. However, while presenting a culture to tourists may help preserve the culture, it can also dilute or even destroy it. Local communities must therefore present traditions in their purest forms, without excessive tampering. Although the European Unions aim is to create a strong network between European countries, it strongly believes that each country must safeguard its own traditions to remain appealing. Environment The excessive development of a resource can lead to numerous negative impacts such as overdevelopment and loss of natural habitats. From an ecological point of view, some people may see tourism as the more acceptable industry. They may say that it is a lot less damaging than deforestation or overfishing, for instance, which may be true. However, those people who analyse tourism closely from all perspectives will notice that tourism does cause a significant amount of damage to the natural environment. Tourists tend to leave behind a trail of environmental degradation in the form of litter, from the excessive use of water in their hotel rooms, leaving lights on after they leave their rooms, to the burning of fossil fuels when making use of transportation to and from their final destination, as well as within it. It is well known that the tourism industry is not only made up of direct players, but also indirect players, and these play a significant part in polluting the environment. Another important factor to consider is the fact that certain localities can only accommodate a limited amount of people at a time. This concept is known as carrying capacity. Mathieson and Wall (1982) defined the tourism carrying capacity as The maximum number of people who can use a site without an unacceptable alteration in the physical environment and without unacceptable decline in the quality of experience gained by visitors. To ensure the longevity of certain attractions, carrying capacity guidelines must be respected and evaluated to ensure that little harm is caused. Although restricting the number of entrants into a facility may infringe upon profitability, in certain scenarios it is more valuable to protect something unique than to exhaust it. Advancements in environmentally friendly technologies are well underway, and numerous airline manufacturers are designing more fuel efficient aircraft which fall within emissions guidelines. Land transportation is also becoming increasingly environmentally friendly with the introduction of hybrid as well as all electric vehicles, and more fuel efficient fossil fuelled vehicles. US President Barack Obama is setting a big example by wanting all public transportation within the New York area to be environmentally friendly within the next few years. Tourism in Libya is on the rise, bringing increased demand for hotel accommodation and for capacity at airports such as Tripoli International. A multi-million dollar renovation of Libyan airports has recently been approved by the government to help meet such demands. At present 130,000 people visit the country annually; the Libyan government hopes to increase this figure to 10,000,000 tourists. Saif al-Islam al-Gaddafi, the second-eldest son of Muammar al-Gaddafi, is involved in a green development project called the Green Mountain Sustainable Development Area, which seeks to bring tourism to Cyrene and to preserve Greek ruins in the area. Economy Minimise the negative impacts- Economic The introduction of environmentally friendly transportation systems would reduce health risks, therefore cutting health care costs for national government. This would cause less strain on the economic system. Ensure that local markets are up to date and can compete with foreign markets. Organisations must be dynamic and adaptable to rapid change. Maximise positive impacts- Economic -Promoting a countrys most popular assets will create employment as new business ventures may begin and new job positions will be made available as a result. The government must promote its destination as a secure place for investment, therefore increasing financial gain for stakeholders. Government must improve the state of the environment and make it more appealing to tourists.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Media Stereotypes Ã¢â¬Å"Media stereotypes are inevitable, especially in the advertising, entertainment and news industries, which need as wide an audience as possible to quickly understand information. Stereotypes act like codes that give audiences a quick, common understanding of a person or group of peopleÃ¢â¬âusually relating to their class, ethnicity or race, gender, sexual orientation, social role or occupation.Ã¢â¬ Stereotypes are deeply embedded in every society in numerous ways. The dictionary definition of a stereotype is Ã¢â¬Å"one that is regarded as embodying or conforming to a set image or type.Ã¢â¬ Stereotyping or Labeling is a technique that Ã¢â¬Å"attempts to arouse prejudices in an audience by labeling the object of the propaganda campaign as something the target audience fears, hates, loathes, or finds undesirable.Ã¢â¬ These stereotypes become so clichÃ © that they begin to form daily thoughts and views and one is unable to look beyond them. They then become dominant ideologies that are impossible to remove. These stereotypes are inevitable since they have been a key player in the propaganda that the west promotes to other cultures and societies. Media plays a vital role in producing these stereotypes. This is because the media is a very dominant mode of communications in the society that we live in today. In the past 50 years the media has shaped thoughts and influenced people in numerous ways. Ã¢â¬Å"Most common forms of media are television, radio, newspaper, magazines, direct mail, and billboards.Ã¢â¬ We are bombarded everyday in some way or the other by images from the media world. Therefore, it becomes impossible to escape the messages that are presented to us over and over again. These stereotypes are there in order to form propagand... ...ns.biz/marketing/marketing_definitions.htm. consulted on Monday, March 29, 2004 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Online at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propaganda . Consulted on Monday, March 29, 2004 PRATKANIS, Anthony and ARONSON, Elliot. Age of Propaganda: The Everyday Use and Abuse of Persuasion . New York : W.H. Freeman and Company, 1991. Media Network Analysis. Media Portrayals of Girls and Women: Introduction. Online at: http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/issues/stereotyping/women_and_girls/index.cfm . Consulted on Sunday, March 28, 2004 Quote from the text on the woman in the Bijan image. Online at http://www.mediawatchyouth.ca/images.php?cat=rr . Consulted on Friday, April 02, 2004 . DYER, Richard. Gays and Film. Online at http://gente.chueca.com/peliculas2/libros/richarddyer/gaysandfilm.htm . Consulted on Friday, April 02, 2004
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Response Essay Ã¢â¬Å"Theatre makes us think about power and the way our society works and it does this with a clear purpose, to make a change.Ã¢â¬ The ideas of Bertolt Brecht (1898-1965) changed the theatre in many ways. Brecht along with Erwin Piscator developed the style of Epic theatre style contrasting to previous accepted styles. Presentational in form, Epic theatre is a vehicle for social comment through techniques such as: alienation, historification, eclectic influences (highly Asian), constructivism in scenery, disjointed and illogical scene placement, ordinary clothing and lighting, the use of music to detach the audience from emotion, placards and signs and projected images. Didactic in nature BrechtÃ¢â¬â¢s works aim to challenge the audience to assess socially accepted norms and educate them to injustices often overlooked by the public. The Caucasian Chalk Circle (Brecht, 1944) written during the time of Nazi Germany occupation has a clearly political and social focus. The Caucasian Chalk Circle (CCC) is a play of two stories which eventually are interweaved. Scene 1 is a prologue to the action of the play that serves as a metaphor for the entire play Ã¢â¬Å"struggle between what is right legally and what right sociallyÃ¢â¬ . The protagonist from the first story is Grusha, a simple maid who sacrifices her safety and youth to protect GovernorÃ¢â¬â¢s child. Scenes 2-4 focus exclusively on GrushaÃ¢â¬â¢s story. Scene 5 introduces the protagonist for the second story, the drunk judge Adzak. Scene 6 brings the two protagonists together and is the climatic action of the play. Scenes 5 and 6 focus more on social problems being that the base of society- the justice system. The audience experiences the drunken judge take bribes and rule in favour of thos... ...onal connection. The Caucasian Chalk Circle by Bertolt Brecht is a perfect example of the conventions Epic theatre uses to alienate the audience form emotion connection in order to allow an objective viewing of the themes and issue presented. These being ones of social order: is the social structure and legal systems providing fair and just rulings and procedures? By examination of Post World War Two damages we see the effects of war then as a result consciously attempt to prevent it and change our situation. This is an effective way of challenging and informing the contemporary audience as it is visual and audibly dynamic as well as informative, the medium of live theatre is intense and it allows audience members to ascertain meaning together. This sparks discussion which will lead to the individual assessing and attempting to change the way in which society works.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
An Ideal SELF Woman? Americans live in culture full of numerous gender codes. Gender codes are imaginary rules of how males and females should live and are created within America by the media such as TV shows, movies, billboards, magazines, and advertisements. In "Gender Codes in the American Culture", Jack Solomon and Sonia Maasik believe that "Gender codes are socially, not naturally, constructed, and usually reflect cultural values rather than natural facts" (476). This supports that the media creates gender codes because it is the main method in which cultural values are presented. They present what is accepted to be masculine and feminine in America at the time, and society follows these generalizations of what it means to be a man and a woman, thus creating gender codes. A lifestyle magazine is an example of a one type of media that creates gender codes. It is easy for lifestyle magazines create gender roles because they idealize a certain type of man or woman because they address the aspects of everyday life in their articles, advertisements, and features. They show their readers how the ideal man or woman lives their life. SELF is one lifestyle magazine that does just that. SELF is a lifestyle magazine for women between the ages of 20 to 50 years of age and it focuses on giving their readers information and pointers of how to live a supposedly well-rounded life. SELF creates the feminine ideal that a woman be competent in every aspect of her life. According to SELF, being competent in every aspects of a woman ' s life includes being health conscious, eating right, having scheduled weekly workouts whether at home or in the gym, keeping yourself well groomed, dressing fashionably, being independent, having healthy r... ...er life, and if she isn't, then she should be working to fix that in order to achieve this ideal status. This ideal woman creates a gender code for SELF readers. Works Cited Blum, Deborah. "The Gender Blur: Where Does Biology End and Society Take Over?" Signs Of Life in the USA: Readings on Popular Culture for Writers. 4th edition. Ed. Sonia Maasik, and Jack Solomon. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin's, 2003.495- 501. Maasik, Sonia, and Jack Solomon. "We've Come a Long Way, Maybe: Gender Codes in American Culture." Signs Of Life in the USA: Readings on Popular Culture for Writers. 4th edition. Ed. Sonia Maasik, and Jack Solomon. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin's, 2003.475-483. Wolf, Naomi. "The Beauty Myth." Signs Of Life in the USA: Readings on Popular Culture for Writers. 4th edition. Ed. Sonia Maasik, and Jack Solomon. Boston: Bedford/ St. Martin's, 2003.515-524.
Monday, September 16, 2019
CHAPTER 6 A Malady of Medicine Santa Barbara Ã¢â¬Å"Look, Sam,Ã¢â¬ Aaron said. Ã¢â¬Å"I can see that you're not thrilled about the buy-out. So be it. I understand that you've put a lot into this agency. I can give you forty cents on the dollar, but you'll have to take a note. I'm a little cash poor since Katie made me put that trophy room on the house.Ã¢â¬ Sam looked down from the deer head. Ã¢â¬Å"Aaron, I didn't hire an Indian to attack Jim Cable. I still had half of the deal wrapped up with Cochran, which would have put me in the door at any time in the future to close Cable. I wouldn't have jeopardized that.Ã¢â¬ Aaron took two hand mirrors out of his desk drawer and began to juxtapose them to get a glimpse of the back of his head. Sam was used to this Ã¢â¬â it was Aaron's hourly balding check. Ã¢â¬Å"Cochran's secretary saw the Indian get out of your car,Ã¢â¬ Aaron said matter-of-factly. Then, looking back to the mirrors, he said, Ã¢â¬Å"I've been mixing Minoxidil with a little Retin A and that stuff the Man from U.N.C.L.E. sells on TV. Do you think it's working?Ã¢â¬ Sam thought of the feather on the car seat. He was sure he'd locked the car; there was no way the Indian could get in without setting off the alarm. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't care what anyone saw, I didn't hire the fucking Indian to attack Cable and I can't believe you bought their story without asking me.Ã¢â¬ The anger felt good. It cleared his head a little. Aaron put the mirrors down on the desk and smiled. Ã¢â¬Å"I didn't buy it, Sam. But if it was true you can't blame me for taking a shot at your shares.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You greedy little fuck.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Sam.Ã¢â¬ Aaron lowered his voice and took his Ã «fatherlyÃ » tone. Ã¢â¬Å"Samuel.Ã¢â¬ A little wink. Ã¢â¬Å"Sammy, hasn't my greed always been in your best interest? I'm just trying to keep you sharp, son. Would you have had any respect for me if I hadn't tried to make the best of a bad situation? That's the first thing I taught you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know any Indian. It didn't happen, Aaron.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"If you say it didn't, it didn't. You've always been straight with me. I don't even remember the time you cut all the cords off those smoke alarms we were selling because that lady wanted cordless models.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You told me to do that! I was only seventeen years old.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Right, well, how was I to know she smoked in bed?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Look, Aaron, I'll find out what happened at Motion Marine and take care of it first thing in the morning. If they call back while I'm out, try not to sign a confession for me, okay? I've had an incredibly shitty day and I've got to meet someone on upper State Street in a few minutes, so if that's allÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You really like the new head?Ã¢â¬ Normally Sam would have lied, but with so many questions filling his head his highly developed lying center seemed to have shut down. Ã¢â¬Å"It sucks, Aaron. It sucks and I think you should sue the Man from U.N.C.L.E.Ã¢â¬ He walked out as Aaron was snatching up his hand mirrors. Gabriella was just hanging up the phone when Sam walked in. Ã¢â¬Å"That was the security director from your condominium association, Mr. Hunter. He'd like to talk to you right away. The association is holding an emergency meeting tonight to discuss what they are going to do about your dog.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I don't have a dog.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He was very upset. I have his number, but he insisted upon seeing you in person before theÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â she checked her notepad Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ëlynch mob gets hold of you. Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Call him back and tell him that I don't have a dog. Dogs aren't allowed in the complex.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He mentioned that, sir. That seems to be the problem. He said that your dog was on your back patio howling and refused to let anyone get near it and if you didn't get up there he would have to call the police.Ã¢â¬ All Sam could think was Not today. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"All right, call them and tell them I'm on my way. And call the garage down the street and have them come up and fix the flat tire on that orange Datsun out front. Have them bill it to my card.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You have a three o'clock appointment with Mrs. Wittingham.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Cancel it.Ã¢â¬ Sam started out of the office. Ã¢â¬Å"Mr. Hunter, this is a death claim. Mr. Wittingham passed away last week and she wants you to help fill out the papers.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Gabriella, let me clue you in on something: once the client is dead we can afford to be a little lax on the service. The chance of repeat business is, well, unlikely. So reschedule the appointment or handle it yourself.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But sir, I've never done a death claim before.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It's easy: feel for a pulse; if there isn't one, give them the money.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I am not amused, Mr. Hunter. I try to maintain a businesslike manner around here and you continually undermine me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Handle it, Gabriella. Call the garage. I have to go.Ã¢â¬ It was only five minutes from Sam's office to his condo in the Cliffs, a three-hundred-unit complex on Santa Barbara's mesa. From Sam's back deck he could look across the city to the Santa Lucia Mountains and from his bedroom window he could see the ocean. Sam had once rented the apartment, but when the Cliffs went condo ten years before he optioned to buy it. Since then the value of his apartment had increased six hundred percent. The complex offered three swimming pools, saunas, a weight room, and tennis courts. It was restricted to adults without children or dogs, but cats were allowed. When Sam first moved in, the Cliffs had a reputation as a swinging singles complex, a party mecca. Now, after the rise in real estate prices and the death of the middle class, most of the residents were retirees or wealthy professional couples, and the cooperative agreement they all signed set strict limitations on noise and numbers of visitors. A team of security guards patrolled the complex in go lf carts twenty-four hours a day under the supervision of a hard-nosed ex-burglar named Josh Spagnola. Sam parked the Mercedes by Spagnola's office in the back of the Cliffs' clubhouse, which, with its terra-cotta courtyards, stucco arches, and wrought-iron gates, looked more like the casa grande of a Spanish hacienda than a meeting place for condo dwellers. The door to the office was open and Sam walked in to find Spagnola shouting into the phone. Sam had never heard the wiry security chief shout. This was a bad sign. Ã¢â¬Å"No, I can't just shoot the damn dog! The owner is on the way, but I'm not going into his townhouse and shooting his dog, rules or no rules.Ã¢â¬ Sam noticed that even in anger Spagnola remembered to use the word townhouse to refer to the apartment. No one wanted to pay a half-million dollars for an apartment; a townhouse was another thing. People were touchy about how one referred to their homes. When Sam was selling to people who lived in trailers he always referred to them as mobile estates. The term added a certain structural integrity; you never heard on the news of a tornado touching down and ripping the shit out of a park full of mobile estates. Ã¢â¬Å"I am listening, Dr. Epstein,Ã¢â¬ Spagnola continued. Ã¢â¬Å"But you don't seem to understand my position on you missing your nap. I don't give a desiccated damn. I don't give a reconstituted damn. I don't give a creamed damn on toast. I don't give a damn. I'm not entering Mr. Hunter's home until he arrives.Ã¢â¬ Spagnola looked up and gestured for Sam to sit. Then he grinned, mimed a mimic of the caller he was listening to, looked bored, feigned falling asleep, gestured the international sign language for being jerked off, then said, Ã¢â¬Å"Is that so, Doctor? Well, as far as I know I have no superiors since the Crucifixion, so give it your best shot.Ã¢â¬ He slammed down the phone. Sam said, Ã¢â¬Å"Got something on Dr. Epstein?Ã¢â¬ Spagnola smiled. Ã¢â¬Å"He's porking the Cliffs' highly ethical Monday-Wednesday-Friday masseuse.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Everybody's porking her.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, everybody's porking the Tuesday-Thursday-Saturday masseuse. Monday-Wednesday-Friday is very exclusive.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And highly ethical.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Says so in the brochure.Ã¢â¬ Spagnola grinned, then casually picked up a legal pad from his desk and looked it over. Ã¢â¬Å"Samuel, my friend, your puppy has kept me on the phone with charming folks like Epstein all day. Shall I read you the log?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know what you're talking about, Josh. I don't have a dog.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Then you will want to notify security about the large canine that is currently on your back deck disturbing Dr. Epstein's nap.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm not kidding, Josh. If there's a dog on my deck I don't know anything about it.Ã¢â¬ Sam suddenly remembered that he'd left the sliding door to the deck open. Ã¢â¬Å"Christ!Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, the door is open. I've told you about that before, it's an invitation to burglars.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That deck is twenty feet off the ground. How did a dog get up there? How did it get in my apartment without setting off the alarm?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I was wondering that same thing. If it isn't your dog, how did it get up there? It looks bad. The other association members are having an emergency meeting tonight to discuss the problem.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"There isn't a problem. Let's just go get the damn dog and take it to the pound.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, let's. I'll read the log to you while we walk over.Ã¢â¬ Spagnola rose, picked up the legal pad, and led Sam out the door, then paused, locked the office, and set the alarm. Ã¢â¬Å"Can't trust anyone,Ã¢â¬ he said. They walked brick paths shaded with arbors of pink and red bougainvillea while Spagnola read. Ã¢â¬Å"Nine A.M.: Mrs. Feldstein calls to report that a wolf has just urinated on her wisterias. I ignored that one. Nine oh-five: Mrs. Feldstein reports that the wolf is forcibly having sex with her Persian cat. I went on that call myself, just to see it. Nine ten: Mrs. Feldstein reports that the wolf ate the Persian after having his way with it. There was some blood and fur on her walk when I got there, but no wolf.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Is this thing a wolf?Ã¢â¬ Sam asked. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't think so. I've only seen it from below your deck. It has the right coloring for a coyote, but it's too damn big. Naw, it can't be a wolf. You sure you didn't bring home some babe last night who forgot to tell you that she had a furry friend in the car?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Please, Josh.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Okay. Ten fourteen: Mrs. Narada reports that her cat has been attacked by a large dog. Now I send all the boys out looking, but they don't find anything until eleven. Then one of them calls in that a big dog has just bitten holes in the tires on his golf cart and run off. Eleven thirty: Dr. Epstein makes his first lost-nap call: dog howling. Eleven thirty-five: Mrs. Norcross is putting the kids out on the deck for some burgers when a big dog jumps over the rail, eats the burgers, growls at the kids, runs off. First mention of lawsuit.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Kids? We've got her right there,Ã¢â¬ Sam said. Ã¢â¬Å"Kids aren't allowed.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Her grandkids are visiting from Michigan. She filed the proper papers.Ã¢â¬ Spagnola took a deep breath and started into the log again. Ã¢â¬Å"Eleven forty-one: large dog craps in Dr. Yamata's Aston Martin. Twelve oh-three: dog eats two, count 'em, two of Mrs. Wittingham's Siamese cats. She just lost her husband last week; this sort of put her over the edge. We had to call Dr. Yamata in off the putting green to give her a sedative. The personal-injury lawyer in the unit next to hers was home for lunch and he came over to help. He was talking class action then, and we didn't even know who owned the dog yet.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You still don't.Ã¢â¬ Spagnola ignored Sam. Ã¢â¬Å"From twelve thirty to one we had mass sightings and frequent urinations Ã¢â¬â I won't bore you with details Ã¢â¬â then one of my guys spotted the dog and followed it to your building, where it disappeared for a minute and reappeared on your deck.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Disappeared? Josh, aren't you screening these guards for drug use?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I think he meant that he lost sight of it. Anyway, it's been on your deck for a couple of hours and all the residents are convinced that it's your dog. They want to boot you out of the complex.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"They can't do that. I own the place.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Technically, Sam, they can. You own shares in the whole complex, and in the event of a two-thirds vote by the residents they can force you to sell your shares for what you paid for them. It's in the agreement you signed. I looked it up.Ã¢â¬ They were about a hundred yards from Sam's building and Sam could now hear the howling. Ã¢â¬Å"That apartment's worth five times what I paid for it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It is on the open market, but not to the other residents. Don't worry about it, Sam. It's not your dog, right?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Right.Ã¢â¬ Outside Sam's front door thirty of his neighbors were waiting, talking in heated tones, and glancing around. Ã¢â¬Å"There he is!Ã¢â¬ one shouted, pointing toward Sam and Spagnola. For a moment Sam was grateful that Spagnola was at his side, and at Spagnola's side was a.38 special. The ex-burglar leaned to Sam and whispered, Ã¢â¬Å"Don't say anything. Not a word. This could get ugly Ã¢â¬â I see at least two lawyers in that bunch.Ã¢â¬ Spagnola raised his hands and walked toward the crowd. Ã¢â¬Å"Folks, I know you're angry, but we need Mr. Hunter alive if we're going to deal with the problem.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Thanks,Ã¢â¬ Sam said under his breath. Ã¢â¬Å"No charge,Ã¢â¬ Spagnola said. Ã¢â¬Å"It never occurred to them to kill you. Now they'll be embarrassed and go home. Lynchings are so politically incorrect, you know.Ã¢â¬ Spagnola stopped and waited. Sam stayed beside him. As if the security chief had choreographed it, the people in front of Sam's door began to look around, avoiding eye contact with one another, then shuffled off, heads down, in different directions. Ã¢â¬Å"You're amazing,Ã¢â¬ Sam said to Spagnola. Ã¢â¬Å"Nope, it's just that for a lot of years my living depended on the predictability of the professional class. Now it depends on the predictability of the criminal class. Same skills, less risk. You want me to go in first?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You have the gun.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, you wait here.Ã¢â¬ Spagnola unlocked the door and palmed it open slowly. When the door was open just enough for him to pass, the thin security guard snaked through the opening and closed the door behind him. Sam noticed that the howling had stopped. He put his ear to the door and listened, forgetting for a moment that he had installed a soundproof fire door. A few minutes passed before the latch clicked and Spagnola poked his head out. Ã¢â¬Å"Well?Ã¢â¬ Sam said. Ã¢â¬Å"How attached are you to that leather sofa?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It's insured,Ã¢â¬ Sam said. Ã¢â¬Å"Why, did he tear it up? Is he in there?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"He's in here, but I was wondering if you had some sort of Ã¢â¬â well Ã¢â¬â sentimental attachment to the sofa.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No. Why? What's going on?Ã¢â¬ Spagnola threw the door open and stepped out of the way. Sam looked through the foyer into the sunken living room, where a large tan dog had his teeth dug into the arm of the leather sofa and was humping away on it like a furry jackhammer. Ã¢â¬Å"Josh, shoot that animal.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Sam, I know how you feel. You go through life thinking that you're the only one, then you walk in on something like this Ã¢â¬â it's a blow to the ego.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Just shoot the damn dog, Josh.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Can't do it. California law clearly states that a firearm may only be discharged in city limits in cases of imminent physical danger. Doesn't say a word about protecting the honor of someone's couch.Ã¢â¬ Sam ran down the steps into the living room, but as he approached the dog turned and growled at him. The dog laid its ears back against its head, narrowed its golden eyes, and, still growling, began to back Sam into the corner of the living room. Ã¢â¬Å"Josh! Does this qualify as imminent physical danger? Please say yes.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Getting there,Ã¢â¬ Spagnola said, very calmly, as he drew his weapon. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't let him see you're afraid, Sam. Dogs can sense fear.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"This isn't a dog, this is a coyote. This is a wild animal, Josh.Ã¢â¬ Sam was flattened against the fifty-two-inch screen of his television and was still pushing so that the television was tilting back, ready to fall. He could smell a foul, musky odor coming off the animal. Ã¢â¬Å"Shoot it, please. Now, please.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Quiet, Sam. I'm aiming. You can't shoot them in the head. They need that to see if it's rabid. Coyotes aren't normally aggressive. I saw it on PBS.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"This one didn't see the program, Josh. Shoot him.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It might take two shots to drop him. If he leaps, cover your throat until I get the second one into him.Ã¢â¬ Spagnola fired and the TV shattered behind Sam. The coyote stood its ground unaffected. Sam backpedaled over the destroyed television as Spagnola fired again, taking out a vase on the mantel. The coyote looked at Spagnola quizzically. The third shot shattered the sliding glass door, the fourth and fifth punctured a stereo speaker, and the sixth ricocheted off the fireplace and out over the city. When Spagnola's revolver clicked on an empty chamber he turned and bolted out the front door. Sam climbed off the broken television and braced for the coyote's attack. His ears rang with residual gunfire but he could hear laughing from across the room. The coyote was gone, but sitting on his couch, dressed in black buckskins trimmed with red feathers, was the Indian, his head thrown back in laughter. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey!Ã¢â¬ Sam shouted. Ã¢â¬Å"What are you doing?Ã¢â¬ In an instant the Indian leapt up and ran through the shattered glass door onto the deck. He looked over his shoulder and grinned at Sam before vaulting over the railing and dropping out of sight. Sam ran to the deck and looked over the rail. The Indian was gone, but he could hear his cackling laugh echoing down the canyon into town. Sam stumbled back from the rail and into the house, where he sat down on the couch and cradled his head in his hands. There had to be an explanation. Someone was screwing with his life. He riffled through his past as far as he would allow himself, looking for enemies he might have made. They were there Ã¢â¬â competing salesmen, angry customers, angrier women Ã¢â¬â dotting his life like dandelions on a lawn, but none would have gone to such elaborate measures to cause him trouble. In an honest assessment of himself he realized that he had never really been passionate enough about anything to really make that big a difference to anyone, good or bad. Since he'd run from the reservation he couldn't afford the high profile of passionate behavior. Still, there had to be an answer somewhere. Sam thought about prayer, then faith, then remembered something that lay tucked away in the back of his sock drawer. He ran up the stairs to his bedroom and threw open the drawer. He removed a small buckskin bundle and untied the thong that held it together. Objects he had not seen in twenty years Ã¢â¬â teeth, claws, fur, and sweet grass braids Ã¢â¬â spilled out on the dresser. Among them lay a red feather that he had never seen before. Sam looked at the coyote medicine and began to tremble. Coyote Makes the World A long time ago there was water everywhere. Old Man Coyote looked around and said, Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, we need some land.Ã¢â¬ It was his gift from the Great Spirit that he could command all of the animals, which were called the Without Fires Clan, so he called four ducks to help him find land. He ordered each of the ducks to dive under the water and find some mud. The first three returned with nothing, but the fourth duck, because four is the sacred number and that is the way things go in these stories, returned with some mud from the bottom. Ã¢â¬Å"Swell,Ã¢â¬ said Old Man Coyote. Ã¢â¬Å"Now I will make some land.Ã¢â¬ He made the mountains and the rivers, the prairies and the deserts, the plants and the animals. Then he said, Ã¢â¬Å"Guess I'll make some people now, so there will be someone to tell stories about me.Ã¢â¬ From the mud he made some tall and beautiful people. Old Man Coyote liked them very much. Ã¢â¬Å"I will call them Absarokee, which means Ã¢â¬ËChildren of the Large-Beaked Bird. Someday some dumb white guys will come here and get the translation all wrong and call them Crow.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What are they going to eat?Ã¢â¬ one of the ducks asked. Ã¢â¬Å"They have no feathers or fur. What will they cover themselves with?Ã¢â¬ asked a second duck. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes,Ã¢â¬ said a third duck. Ã¢â¬Å"They're pretty, but they won't be able to stay out in the weather.Ã¢â¬ Old Man Coyote thought for a while about how much he disliked ducks, then he took some more mud and made a strange-looking animal with a thick coat and horns. Ã¢â¬Å"Here,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"They can get everything they need from this animal. I'll call it a buffalo.Ã¢â¬ The fourth duck had been standing by watching all this and smoking a cigarette. Ã¢â¬Å"It's a big animal. Your people won't be able to catch it,Ã¢â¬ he said, blowing a long stream of blue smoke in Old Man Coyote's face. Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, so here's another animal that they can ride so they can catch the buffalo.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And how will they catch that one?Ã¢â¬ asked the fourth. Ã¢â¬Å"Look, duck, do I have to work out everything? I made the world and these people and I've given them everything they need, so just back off.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But if they have everything they need, what will they do? Just sit around telling stories about you?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That would be good.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Boring,Ã¢â¬ said the duck. Ã¢â¬Å"I'll make them a bunch of enemies. They'll be hopelessly outnumbered and have to fight all the time and do all kinds of war rituals. How's that?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"They'll get wiped out.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, I'll stay with them. The Children of the Large-Beaked Bird will be my favorites, although some of their enemies can tell stories about me too.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But what if the buffalo animals all get killed?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Won't happen. There's too many of them.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"But what if they do?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Then I guess the people are fucked. I'm tired and dirty and cold from standing in all that water. I'm going to invent the sweat bath and warm up.Ã¢â¬ So Old Man Coyote built a sweat lodge out of willow branches and buffalo skins. He heated the rocks in a fire and put them in a pit in the middle of the sweat lodge, then he and the ducks crawled inside and closed the door, making it completely dark inside. Ã¢â¬Å"Hey, put out that cigarette!Ã¢â¬ Old Man Coyote said to the fourth duck. The duck threw the cigarette on the hot rocks and smoke filled the lodge. Ã¢â¬Å"That smells pretty good,Ã¢â¬ Old Man Coyote said. Ã¢â¬Å"Let's throw some other stuff on the fire and see how it goes.Ã¢â¬ He threw on some cedar needles and they smelled pretty good too, then he threw on some sweet grass and some sage. Ã¢â¬Å"This stuff will be part of the sweat ceremony, too. And some water Ã¢â¬â we need some water so it will really get hot and miserable in here.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And we can get truly purified and clean?Ã¢â¬ asked the third duck. Ã¢â¬Å"Right,Ã¢â¬ said Old Man Coyote. Ã¢â¬Å"First I'll pour four dippers of water on the rocks for the four directions.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"And the four ducks.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Right,Ã¢â¬ said Old Man Coyote. Ã¢â¬Å"Now I'll pour on seven dippers for the seven stars of the Big Dipper. Then ten more because ten is a nice even number.Ã¢â¬ He handed each of the ducks a willow switch to beat their backs with. Ã¢â¬Å"Here, wail on yourself with these.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"What for?Ã¢â¬ asked the second duck. Ã¢â¬Å"TenderizeÃ¢â¬ ¦ erÃ¢â¬ ¦ I meanÃ¢â¬ ¦ it brings up the sweat and purifies you.Ã¢â¬ Then, when the ducks were beating their backs with the willow branches, Old Man Coyote said, Ã¢â¬Å"Okay, now I'm going to pour a whole bunch of dippers on the rocks. I'm not even going to count, but we are going to be really hot and really clean and pure.Ã¢â¬ Then he poured and poured until it was so hot in the lodge that he could not stand it and he slipped out the door, leaving the ducks inside. Later, after he had plunged into the river to cool off, he ate a big meal and laid down to rest. Ã¢â¬Å"That was plumb swell,Ã¢â¬ he said to himself. Ã¢â¬Å"I think I'll give the sweat to my new people. It can be their church and sacrament and they can think of me whenever they go in. It is my gift to them. I guess no one really needs to know about the ducks.Ã¢â¬ Then Old Man Coyote picked up a willow twig and picked a bit of duck meat from between his teeth. Ã¢â¬Å"The sage gives them a nice flavor, though.Ã¢â¬ CHAPTER 7 The Children of the Large-Beaked Bird Crow Country Ã¢â¬â 1967 Samson Hunts Alone sat on a bench by the sweat lodge behind his grandma's house, watching as Pokey carried the hot rocks with a pitchfork from the fire to the pit in the sweat lodge. Samson was supposed to be paying attention to the ritual that Pokey was performing and preparing himself to pray to the Great Spirit to bring him good medicine on his fast, but more than anything he wanted to be inside with the little kids and the women watching ;Bonanza; on television. Grandma had cooked up a big batch of fry bread for the meal after the sweat and Samson's stomach growled when he thought about it. Pokey, straining under a pitchfork full of red-hot rocks, said, Ã¢â¬Å"Can't nobody cross my path between the fire and the sweat during the first four trips.Ã¢â¬ Uncle Harlan, who was sitting next to Samson, let out a sarcastic snicker. Pokey looked up at him, his brow lowered in reproach. Ã¢â¬Å"The boys have to learn, Harlan,Ã¢â¬ Pokey said. Harlan nodded. On the other side of Samson sat his two older cousins, Harry and Festus, thirteen and fourteen, who had been through the sweat for purification and prayer for their success on the basketball court at Hardin Junior High School. They had come the fifteen miles down to Crow Agency with Harlan, their father, to participate in Samson's sweat. Uncle Harlan didn't believe in the old ways. He often said that he didn't want his boys to grow up with their heads full of ideas that didn't work in the modern world. Still, because of the obligations he felt to his family he often drove down for sweats, participated in ritual gift giving, and never missed the Sun Dance in June. He lived in Hardin, north of the reservation, where he rebuilt truck engines during the day and drank hard in the bars at night. He fought often and lost seldom. When he was drinking with Uncle Pokey, the two of them lying on the bed of Pokey's pickup staring into the limitless stars of Montana's big sky, passing a bottle of Dickel Sour Mash between them, Harlan would talk of his time in Vietnam, of the two brothers he lost there, and of the warrior blood that was part of the Hunts Alone family. Pokey would answer Harlan's painful pride with parables and mystical references until Harlan could stand it no longer. Ã¢â¬Å"Damn it, Pokey, can your medicine fix a Cummins diesel? Can it fill out a tax form? Can it get you a job? Fuck medicine. Fuck fasting. Fuck the Sun Dance. If I thought I could do it, I'd take Joan and the kids and go a thousand miles from here.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"You'd be back,Ã¢â¬ Pokey would say. Then the two of them would lie there drinking in silence for long minutes before one of them would bring up basketball, hunting, or truck engines Ã¢â¬â some topic safe and far away from Harlan's anger. Some of those nights Samson would crawl out of his cot, sneak past the six cousins that slept in his room and out into the yard, where he would lie by the wheel of the old truck and listen to the two men talk. Harlan was the only adult Samson knew who would talk about the dead, so the boy would lie there with his face against the cold grass hoping to hear something about his father or his mother, but mostly he heard about his two uncles, dead in the jungles, or his grandfather, who died piece by piece in a white hospital of diabetes. His father had died too young to leave many stories or a strong ghost. Not that Harlan would admit to believing in ghosts. Ã¢â¬Å"If I'm haunted,Ã¢â¬ he would tell Pokey, Ã¢â¬Å"it's not by my unrevenged brothers, it's by you and your back-assward ways.Ã¢â¬ After time and hangovers passed, Samson would ask Pokey about Harlan and always get the same answer. Ã¢â¬Å"Poor Harlan, he is out of balance. I should dance for him at the Sun Dance.Ã¢â¬ It was no answer. Samson remained confused. Samson watched as Harlan rose from the bench and undressed for the sweat. He was tall and lean, his skin deep red-brown in the firelight, his eyes and hair black as an obsidian arrowhead: pure Crow brave. But as Samson undressed he wondered why his uncle seemed so unhappy with his heritage. He treated his Crow blood like a curse, while Pokey seemed to see it as a blessing. They were half brothers, sharing the same mother, belonging to her clan, growing up in the same house; why were they so different? Why did neither one seem to be able to live comfortably in his own skin? Naked, they all entered the low dome of the sweat lodge and sat in a circle around its perimeter. Pokey placed a bucket of water by the fire pit, then he pulled down the door flap. He added sweet grass and cedar to the hot rocks and fragrant smoke filled the lodge as he sang a prayer song. His prayers were in English, which Samson knew embarrassed him some. Pokey, like Grandma, had gone to a boarding school run by the BIA where Indians were forbidden to speak or learn their own language or religion. In this way the BIA hoped that the Native American culture would disappear into the larger white culture, assimilated. Harlan, on the other hand, was ten years younger than Pokey and, like Samson, had been taught Crow in school as part of the BIA's move to preserve Indian culture. Pokey poured four dippers of water onto the rocks and Samson lowered his face to avoid the steam. As Pokey sang, Samson let his mind wander to the Ponderosa. He would like to live on that big ranch in that big house and have his own room and two guns like Little Joe Cartwright. Until Grandma had taken all their per capita money a year ago and bought the big black-and-white television at the Kmart in Billings, Samson thought that everyone lived in a small house with twenty cousins and five or six aunts and uncles and their grandma. Everyone on the reservation seemed to. Before the television arrived Samson did not know he was poor. Now he spent every evening piled in the front room with his family watching people he did not know do things he did not understand in places he could not fathom, while the commercials told him that he should be just like those people. None of those people ever took a sweat. Pokey had poured the seven dippers and the sweat lodge was so hot that Samson's mind went white. He lay down on the floor to breathe some cooler air. Someone lifted his head and asked him if he was okay. He answered yes and passed out. -=*=- Water was being splashed on his face. Samson came to and realized that he was being held in Harlan's strong arms. Ã¢â¬Å"We did a naming ceremony for you, Samson,Ã¢â¬ Harlan said. Ã¢â¬Å"From now on you shall be called Squats Behind the Bush. And you owe each of us a carton of cigarettes and a new Ford truck.Ã¢â¬ Samson saw that Harlan was grinning at him and he smiled back. Ã¢â¬Å"If I don't take the name, do I have to give you the gifts?Ã¢â¬ Harlan laughed and set the boy on his feet by a fifty-five-gallon drum where Harry and Festus were pouring dippers of water over their heads. After they were dried off and redressed Pokey moved the rocks out of the pit and replaced them with hot ones from the fire so the women could take their sweat. Pokey finished and led them into the house, which was surprisingly quiet. The little kids were in bed and the women filed out to the sweat silently as soon as the men entered. The cheap Formica table was set with five plastic bowls around a big pot of venison-and-cabbage stew and a basket of fry bread. Harlan poured them all coffee from a big black urn on the counter while Pokey dished up the stew. Samson attacked a piece of fry bread and was tearing away at its stretchy, donutlike crust when Harlan sat down next to him and said, Ã¢â¬Å"So, Squats Behind the Bush, what are you gonna do tomorrow if you see Old Man Coyote in your vision like your Uncle Pokey did?Ã¢â¬ Festus and Harry giggled. Samson answered the sarcasm in earnest. Ã¢â¬Å"Pokey's the only one with Coyote medicine. Pretty Eagle said so.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Good thing, too,Ã¢â¬ Harlan said. Ã¢â¬Å"Some of us have to live in the real world.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Harlan!Ã¢â¬ Pokey shouted. Ã¢â¬Å"Let it go.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It's gone,Ã¢â¬ Harlan said. Ã¢â¬Å"It's as gone as can be, Pokey.Ã¢â¬ They finished their meal in silence, Samson wondering what Harlan meant by Ã¢â¬Å"It's gone.Ã¢â¬ Later, as he fell asleep listening to the soft breathing of his cousins, he imagined himself living on the Ponderosa; sleeping in his own room, herding cattle on his own black horse, carrying two shiny six-guns, practicing his fast-draw, and always staying on the lookout for Indians.
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