Wednesday, October 30, 2019

The effects of Strategic marketing on Business performance Literature review

The effects of Strategic marketing on Business performance - Literature review Example In the present era, market has become highly competitive. In this competitive market, a strategy is needed to offer product or service which will do better than the competition. The marketing strategy must be executed by a proper methodology. To create a marketing strategy for business a company should think about the following factors. When the market is attractive and the company is holding a strong position in that particular industry, then it must invest the best resources for supporting the offering. But if the company is not in a good position then it must focus on strengthening the company first. When the market is not that attractive and the company is holding a strong position in any industry, then the company should offer effective sales and marketing effort for creating good profit. Furthermore, in either case where company is not too strong then it should promote those offerings which will prove most profitable for business. Literature Review According to the study conduc ted by Jaakkola (2006), there is a strong connection between market and financial performance. Sales volume has direct effect on profit. Individual coefficient differs from country to country. Four measuring sets, i.e., market and innovation orientation, inside out, and outside in marketing were used for assessing marketing performance in few companies. The ‘inside out capabilities’ have high influence on performance in most of the sample country he used except Hong Kong because the market structure and strength of competition are favourable with high market orientation. The connection among market orientation and market performance is extremely low in Finland. This indicates that market orientation in Finland is bad and high market orientation of the business context does not pay off. Where Finnish companies are good in making profit from ‘inside out capabilities’, Austrian companies are good in converting ‘outside in capabilities’ into good b usiness performance. German companies are good into innovation orientation and generate profit with it. Finnish companies have a more positive outlook than others and they act in market oriented way. They continuously take customers and competition into account and hence the financial performance suffers from it. The effectiveness of strategic marketing process in Finnish companies is extremely low. This refers to strong focus on technological product improvement as emphasis should be put more on irrelevant development of processes and capabilities of company. It shows that how ‘inside out capabilities’ is the individual construct and have large influence on competitive advantage development and sustaining business performance. The innovation process positively relates to market performance and competitive advantages, but its total effect on financial performance is negative. The ‘outside in capabilities’ and marketing orientation include slight harmful out come on business performance of a company (Jaakkola, 2006). According to the researches done by Garland and Brooksbank (2008), the marketing strategy is quite prevalent in company in case of more comprehensive situation. The higher performing firms place more importance to an inclusive situation analysis than the lower performing companies. There are five kinds of situation study namely buyer, internal, marketplace, business environment and competitor.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Strategic Business Planning Management And Decision Making

Strategic Business Planning Management And Decision Making The term strategy has found a limited definition arising, principally, from military origins. This definition has been expanded into the business context where many authors have argued strategy in terms of quantitative and qualitative processes. However, it continues to defy a singular, definitive definition. In order to understand strategy, we must look beyond its military antecedents and identify strategy as a life process. Different possible definitions of strategy are: Strategy is the direction and scope of an organisation over the long term, which achieves the advantage in the changing environment through its configuration of resources and competences with the aim of fulfilling stakeholder expectations. Strategies are developed in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the organisation. Aconsistency of direction based on a clear understanding of the game being played and an acute awareness of how to manoeuvre into a position of advantage. Strategy is not just a notion of how to deal with an enemy or set of competitors or a market. It draws us into some of the most fundamental issues about organizations as instruments for collective perception and action. Scope and nature of strategic business management and planning: Scope and nature of strategic business management and planning is a widespread topic and it is hard to list down every aspect of it. I am using JSW model to describe some of the key aspects of strategic business management and planning: The organisations long termdirection: no specific timescale is envisaged but one should think in terms in excess of one year and more probably of several years. The scope of an organisations activities: This will include both the overall roles and purposes the organisation accepts for itself and the activities it undertakes in pursuit of them. For commercial organisations and for many not for profit organisations too, strategic planning will be about gaining some kind of advantage in competition. Strategic decisions are affected by the values and expectationsof organisations stakeholders. Stakeholders are people who have a legitimate interest in what the organisation does. Characteristics of strategic business management and planning: Using JSW model as an reference, some of the key characteristics of strategic business management and planning are: Decisions about the strategic planning are likely to be complexsince there are likely to be a number of significant factors to take in to consideration and a variety of possible outcomes to balance against one another. There is likely to be a high degree of uncertaintysurrounding strategic planning, both about the precise nature of current circumstances and about the likely consequences of any course of action. Strategic planning and management have extensive impact on operational decision making, that is, planning and decision at lower levels in the organisation. Strategic planning affects the whole organisation and requires processes that cross operational and functional boundaries within it. An integrated approachis therefore required. Strategic planning and management are likely to lead to changewithin the organisation as resource capacity is adjusted to permit new courses of action. Changes with implications for organisational cultureare particularly complex and difficult to manage. Key strategies of British Airways are: Be the airline of primary choice for long haul premium customers: So people will want to fly with us at any time they can. We will carry on to come up with great stuff such as the new business class seat on long haul and a restyled First cabin. Deliver a incomparable service for customers at every touch point: By training crew, on the ground and in the sky, in world-class warmth and customer service. Customers can check-in from their mobiles or PDAs. Grow our survival in key global cities around the world: To render the best global connectivity for our customers. In addition toour new long haul service from London City to New York JFK, our network depth will strengthen with more flights to Dubai and Johannesburg and a return to Saudi Arabia. Build on our leading stance in London: The worlds biggest aviation market. Ensuring Heathrow remains a world classhub is vital to give us a powerful London base to cater the largest international long haul markets. We will obtain new slots, support plans for athird runway and work with BAA to improve baggage and terminal conveniencesat Heathrow. Meet our customers needs and improve profit margins through new revenue streams: By coming up with profitable supplementary services that offer customers great value and re-enforce our brand. Our aspire is to grow our mileage business and further revenues from third-party engineering, in-flight sales and a new online retail website. On we have now launched a variety of great value hotel and car hire options packaged with our flights. The decisions we are taking now will establish how strongly we materialize from the downturn. The airline industry is in a period of unprecedented change and we have developed a clear strategy for our business. In order to become the principal global premium airline, we necessitate to look at the way we work as well as what we are doing as a business. For that rationale, along with our five key strategies, we have launched a three-year change programme Compete 2012 correlated to our sponsorship of the London 2012 Olympics. This programme is being progressively rolled out across our business to revive our culture and will reform the way we work. Need of strategy in global environment: Todays environment is very much dynamic. Organisations are in a constant exercise of realigning themselves to the needs of the environment. Defined and thorough strategy plays a vital part here. Especially for a globally operating organisation like BA, it could be a matter of success or failure. Managers must be aware that markets, supplies, investors, locations, partners, and competitors can be everywhere. Successful businesses will take advantage of opportunities wherever they are and will be prepared for downfalls. International strategy is the continuous and comprehensive management technique designed to help companies operate and compete effectively across national restrictions, For example, some companies form partnerships with companies in other countries, others acquire companies in other countries, others still develop products, services, and marketing campaigns designed to appeal to customers in other countries. Some rudimentary aspects of international strategies mirror do mestic strategies in that companies must determine what products or services to sell, where and how to sell them, where and how they will produce or provide them, and how they will compete with other companies in the industry in accordance with company goals. Generally, a Company develops its international strategy by considering its overall strategy, which includes its operations at home and abroad. We can consider four aspects of strategy: (1) scope of operations, (2) resource allocation, (3) competitive advantage, and (4) synergy. Besides the fact that well defined strategic business management and planning processes bring structure, control and consistency to the overall decision making of the organisation but we (the company) should also consider that the formal decision making model discussed above may distract managers attention from controlling actual process as making strategic plans is not the same thing as managing the process. A split may also develop between the people responsible for planning and those responsible for implementation. Particularly in large organisation like ours (BA) the planning system may be too complex and extensive for even quite senior managers to understand the way it works. Over-formal planning systems and over-rigid control can hamper innovative thinking. As the national and international environment is always in a constant move so one can say that there is no one best planning and management model. Now a days the environmental factors and most importantly the customer are in a greater power than before that influences the overall structure, strategy, planning and management processes of the organisation. Prescriptive and Emergent (Mintzberg) strategies: In real world, 100% intended or prescriptive strategies does not get realised. Some intended strategies fail as predicted environment keeps changing. Emergent strategies arise in response to unexpected changes in the environment and may be better than intended strategies. Hence, organisations should keep some room for emergent strategies alongside the formal process i.e. Rational model. Following diagram is a snapshot of how a mix of prescriptive and emergent strategies get realised in the practical world: Different levels of strategy and their relationship with each other: (Hofer and Schender) Strategic business management and planning can be formulated on three different levels: Corporate level. Tactical or business level. Operational level. Corporate level strategy makers analyze the common needs of business units and add impact to the whole system in addition to individual development of participating business units. Issues with reference to the introduction of new products or growth into new markets or segments are all a part of this strategic level. Corporate level strategy forms the stem of the strategic decision tree and the management has to be wholly responsive of its implications as well as the sensitivity of all succeeding strategies, no matter at what level. It is of prime substance that corporate level strategy is entirely associated by and large with the vision of the business and the values and prospect of stakeholders. Business or tactical level strategies are in essence position strategies whereby businesses safe for themselves uniqueness and spot in the market. The endeavour here is to augment the business value for the corporate and stakeholders by increasing the brand understanding and value professed by the customers. The third level of strategy is the operational level which chiefly is concerned with successfully implementing the tactical decisions prepared at Corporate and business unit level through optimal consumption of resources and competencies of the business unit. A methodical understanding of the three levels of strategy makes their strong co-dependence and non-hierarchical nature obvious. All strategies have to be in absolute harmonization with each other since the accomplishment of one is inseparably related to the other. So as a substitute of being in a top-down order, the inter-connecting can be visualized as a triangle with the three corners indicating the three levels. Visions, missions and objectives: The two organisations which are to be contrasted and compared are British Airways (for Profit) and Oxfam (Not for Profit). Vision: Vision means the category of intentions which are broad, all-intrusive and forward-thinking. The corporate success is reliant on the vision set by the top management. A vision is the image that a business must have of its objectives before it sets out to reach them. It describes ambitions for the future, without specifying the means that will be used to achieve those desired ends. Vision of British Air : The Vision focuses on employees and customers à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.it emphasizes BAs desire to be the worlds global airline. Vision of Oxfam UK : Oxfams vision is that diverse communities of people living in poverty will exercise their rights to a decent and secure standard of living in developed society. Mission : A mission statement is an organizations vision converted into written form. It makes tangible the managements view of the direction and purpose of the organization. Mission of British Airways : To be the undisputed leader in world travel for the next millennium. Mission of Oxfam : The main areas of Oxfam mission focus are poverty alleviation, action against violence, making people exercise their rights, removing gender inequality and preventing and reducing environment damage. Objectives : Objectives give the organization a clearly defined target. Planning can then be made thereafter to achieve these targets. This is helpful in motivating the employees. It also allows the business to measure the progress towards to its stated aims. Objectives of British Airways : The main objectives of British Air revolve around the following key areas: Employee satisfaction and retention Customer Satisfaction Being more effective as an international carrier as compared to other airlines. Making efficient use of resources. Using methods that are environmentally friendly. Making the airline more competitive in terms of fares while at the same time focusing on profitability. Objectives of Oxfam : The main objectives of Oxfam address the following: Creating programs for people to make them exercise their rights. Taking measures to reduce environmental damage. Creating awareness among women and thus working towards gender equality. Taking practical measures against the use of violence. Methodology for creating Vision, Mission and Objectives: The methodology used would be: Vision: Based on the views of the management to create a certain image of the airline in the long-term and how the founding members/key stakeholders want to see the organization in future. Mission: It will be based on the vision and the methodology used will depend on the need for to stand out amongst the airline industry. Objective: The Objectives will be decided comparing the performance of other airlines and the key steps / indicators required to translate the vision in to tangible results. Methodology for creating Vision, Mission and Objectives: Vision: This will be decided according to the core principles on which a charity like Oxfam is founded. The factors considered would be the environment in which the charity operates and the people affected by its activities. Mission: This area is decided according to the aims of the key stakeholders and the different areas on which Oxfam focuses including poverty reduction, disaster relief and development projects around the world. Objective: The objectives will be set for the short or long term and the performance measures for the charity taking into consideration the main areas of operations as well as the likely hurdles in attaining a particular goal. Strategic business management and planning method: Strategic Business Management and Planning Method of the organization : One of the main methods used is the SWOT Analysis and the PEST analysis. It takes into account the likely impact of the steps taken by British Air to meet its objectives taking into account the competitors as well as the global conditions existent in the world of travel and transport. This will focus on the main areas which can have a direct impact on the running of the airline including the fuel prices , customer satisfaction, competitor fares etc. Strategic Business Management and Planning Method of the organization : The methods used for a non-profit like Oxfam would be different as they will focus on key achievement areas in its global relief and humanitarian efforts rather than profitability. A key method might be the Value for Money (VFM) process. The likely areas taken into account during these methods might include the amount of donations received, the number of people served and the effectiveness of the work undertaken by Oxfam. The influence of corporate governance and regulations: Influence of Corporate Governance and Regulations: British airways has to take into account different areas of corporate governance including the performance of the board and the regulation concerning the executive pay, the roles and duties of chairman and the chief executive , regulation concerning the functioning of board committees, shareholder accountability , environmental regulation. Influence of Corporate Governance and Regulations: Oxfams corporate governance procedures will take into account the requirement for directors and trustees and adhering to a code of conduct(based on the Nolan Committee Principles of Standards in Public Life),also looking into possible conflicts of interests . The specifications of the memorandum of association and the key charitable aims of the charity. Relevance of visions, missions and objectives: Many organisations never explore their reasons for being in business. They are so involved in day-to-day actions they fail to see the bigger picture. So what is the significance of having an articulated Vision, Mission and Objectives? It starts with establishing your core values. Core values are things that drive an organisation. They are the driving force of an organisation. They are fixed and do not change over time. Once the core values are established, the next step is the Vision, a long-term goal. It can be something minute or something that is huge. The Mission flows from an organisations Vision. A Mission is important because it embraces the commitment of an organisation to staff, customers, and the community at large. It may define the company ethos, core beliefs of the owners, service levels, quality, excellence, training and commitment. Setting objectives is the stage that comes next in the process. It is important because it shows how an organisation delivers on the promises made by its Mission. If there is clarity in both the Vision and Mission, it is easy to decide on the objectives. Objectives can be set for each key area of the business along with a time-line for completion. Objectives may be corporate, product, market, sales, financial, operations, or staff related or any combination of these.As can be seen, this is a trickle down system with higher level aspirations that flow down to every level of the business and become the glue that holds everything together. The benefits of having a vision, mission and objectives are clear and unambiguous. Every step that an organisation takes is in pursuit of its articulated end game.

Friday, October 25, 2019

The Benefits of Prolonging and Separating Vaccines Essay examples -- V

Parents today have many concerns for the well being of their child. One big apprehension is what vaccines are being introduced into their infant’s small bodies and the many adverse reactions they cause. In our current generation, infants are injected with up to 31 vaccines just in their first year of life (CDC, 2015). Life threatening diseases are prevented with such vaccines, but parents are often left to wonder, how many of these vaccines are even necessary. Many of the vaccines are given in combinations; sometimes three or more disease fighting vaccines are given in one inoculation. There is continued clinical research to increase efficiency of these vaccines, changing the components of the vaccines, making them vastly different from what they were in generations past. Separating these vaccines can make a large difference in how a child’s body reacts to the new generation of vaccines. Vaccines can not only be separated out of the combinations that are most com mon, they can be prolonged. Some parents choose to give vaccines only every six months, others choose to wait to start any vaccinations until their child is two years of age (Miller, 2014). Parents have choices today, follow the recommended dosage schedule or prolong and separate their child’s vaccines. In doing the latter, and infant’s body systems have time to mature, side effects may be reduced, and parents will be more willing to vaccinate.â€Æ' Prolonging and Separating Infant Vaccinations There are many reason parents choose to vaccinate or not. Side effects and fears of permanent adverse reactions are among the biggest of parent fears when considering when and how to vaccinate their child. With the emergence of fears of autism, neurological problems, develop... ...ines/multiplevaccines.html Fisher, Barbara. (2011). Vaccine Safety: Evaluating the Science. Medical Science and Public Trust: The Policy, Ethics and Law of Vaccination in the 20th and 21st Century. Retrieved from Dr. Miller, Donald. (2014). A User-Friendly Vaccination Schedule. Retrieved from Morales, Tatiana. (2014). CBSNews. To Vaccinate or Not. Retrieved from Stratton, Kathleen, Wilson, Christopher & McCormick, Marie. (2002). Under Review: Multiple Immunizations and Immune Dysfunction. Immunization Safety Review. (Pgs. 32-42). Retrieved from

Thursday, October 24, 2019

High Speed Trains

Rail Vehicle Systems H i g h – S p e e d Tra i n s Source: Siemens High-Speed Trains Air Supply | Brake Control | Bogie Equipment | Rail-Services | On-Board Source: Bombardier 2 Why do more and more high-speed train manufacturers and operators put their faith in Knorr-Bremse systems ? Rail Vehicle Systems Knorr-Bremse systems are impressive even at extremely high speeds At speeds of up to 400 km/h, enormous forces are generated. Trains that regularly travel long distances at high speeds require braking systems that can keep these forces under control – both safely and economically.As well as lightweight, compact systems that can be used worldwide, there is a need for intelligent control systems. Knorr-Bremse is regarded as an international pioneer in this field. On the basis of tried-and-tested technologies, we develop innovative solutions offering top levels of safety, reliability, and economy. The systems we have developed are so efficient that they also score top mar ks in terms of environmental friendliness. Customers enjoy full support from a single source – from the initial planning stage and commissioning right down to aftermarket services.Worldwide operator and customer audits regularly single out the consistent quality of our products and services for praise – and this is confirmed by our EN 50126 (RAMS and LCC) certification. 3 High-Speed Trains Systems Solutions For Every Market On-BOard S yS t e m S BOgie equipment a i r S u p p ly What is Knorr-Bremse’s complete â€Å"one-stop solution† for high-speed trains 4 ? Rail Vehicle Systems Air Supply Combined compressor and air treatment system Knorr-Bremse’s ready-to-install air supply equipment has been adapted in line with the trend towards increasingly compact, lightweight systems.Our product portfolio includes low-vibration and low-noise screw compressors with an output of between 600 and 2,500 l/min. as well as air dryers and condensate collectors. A p articularly economic solution is the first ever oil-free compressor, with life-cycle costs that are up to 50% lower than those of conventional compressors. B o gie Equipment Innovative design minimizes assembly and maintenance requirements Knorr-Bremse offers a wide range of compact, lightweight bogie equipment including low-maintenance compact brake calipers, low-wear brake discs, and innovative high-performance brake pads.Sinter pads reduce the life-cycle costs of electromagnetic track brakes by up to 40%. The eddy current brake is completely free of wear components. Brake Control Ensuring the intelligent interaction of all brake functions With brake control systems, Knorr-Bremse ensures optimum functioning of all systems involved in the braking process and allow reliable stopping of the train in all operating conditions.The highly flexible and configurable brake control system EP Compact, together with the modular electronic platform ESRA, manages the pressure control, anti-skid, wheel-slide monitoring and diagnostics, as well as further highly complex brake control functions. BraKe cO n t r O l O n-B oard Systems Doors, air-conditioning units, and more It is not just Knorr-Bremse braking systems that ensure greater safety and comfort in rail vehicles. Our on-board product portfolio covers a wide range of innovative products and solutions including vehicle and platform doors and air-conditioning units.We also produce state-of-the-art electronic diagnostic systems and windscreen wiper and wash systems. R ail-S er vices A partner for all requirements throughout the entire product life-cycle Knorr-Bremse offers a wide range of rail-services ranging from individual consultancy and collaborative product development to homologation, commissioning, training, maintenance, repair, upgrading, and overhaul of all components – as well as a reliable supply of OEM parts. Whether you opt for individual services or the full package, everything is provided locally, e ither on-site or in one of our global service centers.Testing Test benches for all products – worldwide Knorr-Bremse supplies test benches for all products and systems, customized and tailored to the customer’s requirements, to supplement longterm overhaul services with tools and products for daily maintenance. Several hundreds of test benches and test installations are in operational service with our customers worldwide – for example, as train brake tests, test benches for brake control products, compressors, air dryers, tread brakes, brake calipers, and more.A perfect balance of high-quality systems and services Knorr-Bremse’s expertise in the field has gone into every single component and system. Top-quality components operate smoothly together to guarantee optimum functionality, high reliability, and maximum safety. Complex electronic control systems such as blending and brake management reduce wear to a minimum by ensuring balanced operation of all s ystems. The system can be configured either to use the vehicle bus system or a separate bus exclusive to the braking system. For each project, customers are closely consulted at the design stage.It goes without saying that Knorr-Bremse offers support during the homologation process as well as all the necessary on-site services across the entire product life-cycle. 5 High-Speed Trains C u t t i n g – E d g e Te c h n o l o g i e s Compressors Oil-free compressor Compact Brake Calipers Easy to install, maintenance-free, unusually lightweight The compact brake caliper unit has a completely redesigned mechanism for applying braking force that allows for considerable transverse axle movement and tilt without generating any internal stresses.Requiring only a standard interface, it is easy to install, and sealed joints mean low maintenance. Its weight has also been reduced by up to an impressive 100 kg per bogie. Modular Brake Control EP Compact and ESRA – modular brake contr ol With EP Compact, Knorr-Bremse has developed a flexible and powerful brake control system with central and distributed control coming from one family. Core functions can be expanded by adding a wide range of options offered by various modules of the EP Compact product family.Especially for high-speed trains, Knorr-Bremse has developed innovative ESRA modules for new functions as defined in the TSI. Knorr-Bremse is the only brake supplier to offer an integrated solution for bogie monitoring and diagnostics comprising detection of non-rotating axles, derailment detection and additional diagnostic functions to improve service and maintenance. Knorr-Bremse was the first company in the rail vehicle industry to develop a compressor that operates without any oil. Lubrication is replaced by a special coating, and the unit is cooled by air taken in via the crankcase.This innovative product is a winner in both environmental and economic terms. Expenses for oil changes, oil separation, and c ondensate disposal are avoided, and energy consumption, weight, and installation space are significantly reduced. Innovations that pay their way Reducing wear and tear and maintenance costs is a good way of saving money. More than any other manufacturer, Knorr-Bremse has succeeded in finely coordinating the complex interplay of different braking systems. Brake components that are prone to wear are only used when the wear-free electro-dynamic braking cannot cope on its own.Even then, patented ISOBAR brake pads have proven longevity against conventional materials. Brake pads and discs require replacement less frequently, and their design enables them to be serviced rapidly. The brake calipers themselves are low maintenance. These examples demonstrate that if all the relevant factors are included in the calculation, the bottom line is savings for the customer. Customized service packages ensure that all Knorr-Bremse systems function smoothly for up to 30 years – anywhere in the world.The secret is our combination of OEM expertise and a highly efficient service infrastructure. 6 Rail Vehicle Systems Brake Management Intelligent braking Stefan Aurich Team Leader, System Engineering High-Speed Trains â€Å"We produce utterly reliable systems for rail vehicles that are subject to heavy use. Our products offer everything: easy handling, low-cost, and uncompromising levels of safety. † Economical braking is all about reducing the stress on wear components to a minimum. Knorr-Bremse ensures that friction brakes only come into operation when wear-free dynamic brakes are not enough.A brake management system for the entire train calculates brake force distribution based on different data: available brake effort of the individual brake systems, vehicle weights and adhesion limits, and thermal limits of the friction brake are taken into account to blend the different systems and achieve a balanced braking. is it true that Knorr-Bremse’s high-speed soluti ons are also the best in the world in terms of economy ? 7 High-Speed Trains Satisfied Customers †¦ 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wherever top quality is crucial for competitiveness Knorr-Bremse’s rail vehicle systems are not only cutting-edge technology – they are also market leaders.All over the world, when manufacturers and operators make purchasing decisions, they take a wide range of factors relating to safety and economics into consideration. They find that the best results are offered by Knorr-Bremse’s unique combination of experience and innovation. Many customers opt for the full range of Knorr-Bremse systems and components for their high-speed trains. Examples for equipped high-speed trains worldwide: 1 BR 407 2 AVE S 103 3 AGV Pegase 4 CRH3 5 AVE S 102 6 KTX Korea 8 †¦ Supplied With Excellent Products Air SupplyOil-free compressor Oil-free air (environmentally friendly, no downstream contamination) Less complex system / fewer interfaces (no oil filter, no c ondensate collector) Almost maintenance-free, very low LCC Screw compressor Special design, related to tough railway operation conditions Low compressor noise level Virtually pulsation-free, delivery of compressed air Brake Control EP Compact Flexible brake control platform Central and distributed control Compact design Continuous pneumatic load correction Full set of auxiliary functions CENELEC- and TSI-compliantModular ESRA Intelligent combination of pneumatic and electronic control Intelligent blending and brake management Modular and suitable to the various customer requirements CENELEC- and TSI-compliant Bogie Equipment Wheel- and axle-mounted brake disc Standardized interface and fixation on wheel Resistant against thermal cracks due to movable friction disc Robust design with high safety against external shock and vibration Compact brake caliper Only one interface to bogie Highly modular design Optimized design regarding weight, assembly, and costs Reduced maintenance 9 Rail Vehicle SystemsCompact units Compact, light, reliable Protected: developed especially for installation beneath the frame All components to be maintained can be reached through a maintenance port Air dryer Dual-chamber regeneration dryer Lightweight aluminum design Integrated pre-filtration elements COMORAN – Condition Monitoring for Railway Applications Condition monitoring and diagnosis Derailment detection Reducing life-cycle costs Fulfillment of TSI requirements Modular motion controller kit Brake, traction, and master controller Compatible with UIC standard Small, flexible installation space Robust design, proven applicationIsobar sinter brake pad Flexible sinter brake pad with highest brake performance Temperature resistant with constant friction behavior Long disc and pad life due to even temperature distribution on brake disc For overhaul, only replacement of friction elements necessary Eddy current brake No mechanical contact between brake and rail No wear and tear an d low maintenance Noiseless braking Brake force does not depend on friction coefficient Constant brake force even at high-speed applications 10 Rail Vehicle Systems Where have Knorr-Bremse solutions already been tried and tested ? 11 High-Speed Trains T h e F u t u r eWhat prospects for the future can Knorr-Bremse offer in the high-speed segment 12 ? Rail Vehicle Systems Secure Operation | Secure Investment | Secure Future The future belongs to technology leaders The extreme stress to which high-speed trains are subjected call for unusually high-performance, top-quality, and safe braking technologies. We offer to adapt every system to the specific operating conditions involved, thereby minimizing wear and tear and achieving top levels of economy and vehicle availability. As a manufacturer of braking systems with more than 100 years‘ experience, Knorr-Bremse has the necessary expertise to achieve this.High levels of R & D investment ensure that our systems remain cutting-edge a round the world. With railservices Knorr-Bremse offers a high-quality portfolio of maintenance and aftermarket services ranging from original spare parts and maintenance agreements right down to responsibility for complete systems during the entire life-cycle. Customers also benefit from a comprehensive network of service centers for all braking and on-board systems. 13 Rail Vehicle Systems Knorr-Bremse Systeme fur Schienenfahrzeuge GmbH Moosacher Stra? e 80 80809 Munich Germany Tel: +49 89 3547 0 Fax: +49 89 3547 2767 www. knorr-bremse. om Europe – Africa Austria – Modling Dr. techn. J. ZELISKO GmbH Tel: +43 2236 409 0 Knorr-Bremse GmbH Tel: +43 2236 409 0 Austria – Kematen/Ybbs Knorr-Bremse GmbH Division IFE Tel: +43 7448 9000 Czech Republic – Brno IFE-CR, a. s. Tel: +42 0532 159 111 IGE-CZ s. r. o. Tel: +42 0548 424 050 France – Reims Freinrail Systemes Ferroviaires S. A. Tel: +33 3 2679 7200 Germany – Berlin Knorr-Bremse Systeme fur Schi enenfahrzeuge GmbH Zweigniederlassung Berlin Tel: +49 30 9392 0 Hungary – Budapest Knorr-Bremse Vasuti Jarmu Rendszerek Hungaria Kft. Tel: +36 1421 1100 Italy – Florence Knorr-Bremse Rail Systems Italia S. r. l.Tel: +39 055 3020 1 Italy – Rozzano Microelettrica Scientifica SpA Tel: +39 02 575 731 Netherlands – Leeuwarden IFE Tebel Technologies B. V. Tel: +31 58 297 3333 Poland – Krakow Knorr-Bremse Systemy dla Kolejowych Srodkow Lokomocji PL Sp. z o. o. Tel: +48 12 260 96 10 Romania – Bucharest Knorr-Bremse SRL Tel: +40 37 400 5155 Russia – Moscow Knorr-Bremse Systeme fur Schienenfahrzeuge GmbH Tel: +7 495 739 01 13 South Africa – Spartan Knorr-Bremse (SA) (Pty) Ltd. Tel: +27 11 961 7800 South Africa – Johannesburg Microelettrica Scientifica (PTY) Ltd Tel: +27 11 794 3330 Spain – Madrid Merak Sistemas Integrados de Climatizacion, S.A. Tel: +34 91 495 90 00 Sociedad Espanola de Frenos Calefaccion y Senales, S. A. T el: +34 91 145 9400 Sweden – Lund Knorr-Bremse Nordic Rail Services AB Tel: +46 46 3293 50 Switzerland – Niederhasli Oerlikon-Knorr Eisenbahntechnik AG Tel:+41 44 852 31 11 United Kingdom – Melksham Knorr-Bremse Rail Systems (UK) Ltd. Tel: +44 1225 898 700 United Kingdom – Derby Sydac Ldt Derwent Business Centre Tel: +44 1332 299 600 United Kingdom – Donchaster Techtrain Associates Ltd Tel: +44 1302 360043 Americ a Brazil – Sao Paulo Knorr-Bremse Sistemas para Veiculos Ferroviarios Ltda. Tel: +55 11 5681 1129 Canada – Kingston Knorr Brake Ltd.Tel: +1 613 389 46 60 USA – Randolph Microelettrica USA LLC Tel: +1 973 598 0806 USA – Watertown New York Air Brake Corporation Tel: +1 315 786 52 00 USA – West Chicago Anchor Brake Shoe Company Tel: +1 630 293 1110 USA – Westminster IFE North America Tel: +1 410 875 1468 Knorr Brake Corporation Tel: +1 410 875 09 00 Merak North America LLC Tel: +1 410 875 09 00 A sia – Australia Australia – Granville NSW Knorr-Bremse Australia Pty. Ltd. 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Please contact your local Knorr-Bremse representative or check our website www. knorr-bremse. com for the latest update. The figurative mark â€Å"K† and the trademarks KNORR and KNORRBREMSE are registered in the name of Knorr-Bremse AG. Copyright 2007  © Knorr-Bremse AG – All rights reserved.Including industrial property rights applications. Knorr-Bremse AG retains any power of disposal, such as for copying and transferring. China – Wuxi Merak Jinxin Air Conditioning Systems (Wuxi) Co. , Ltd. Tel: +86 510 8558 3133 India – Faridabad Knorr-Bremse India Private Ltd. Tel: +91 129 227 64 09 Japan – Tokyo Knorr-Bremse Rail Systems Japan Ltd. Tel: +81 3 53 91 10 13 Korea – Seoul Knorr-Bremse Rail Systems Korea Ltd. Tel: +82 2 22 80 55 55 Singapore – Singapore Knorr-Bremse Asia Pacific (Holding) Limited Tel: +65 6555 0105 P-1203-EN-03 09. 2010

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

The Australian legal system

The Australian legal system has 2 main sources of law, namely the Parliament-made law and the case law or the common law. The primary source of law in Australia is the Parliament-made laws. As the representatives are elected to the House by the people, statutes and laws can be made keeping in mind the needs of the people. Case laws on the other hand are made by the judges in the courts. Once the court gives its decision, the same would apply for similar circumstances or instances (precedent).The decision would be binding on courts in the future. Another source of law that can be considered in the Australian legal system is the international law that would be applicable in case Australia is a signatory to an international convention, or a bilateral/multilateral agreement (Governments of Australia and South Australia, 2007). Judges are usually, unable to make laws. The law-making capabilities are usually done by the Legislation. The judiciary would be interpreting laws and filling up t he gaps that have been left by the legislation.However, there may be instances in which a strong judiciary can create a new law that may have a strong impact on the society such that it would place the importance of the rule-making authority on the judiciary. Such instances include old, inappropriate and laws that go against human rights. There may be several areas of law such as contract laws, tort laws, negligence, etc, which need to be decided on a case-by-case basis, and develop judicial precedents for future cases. If the statues are so rigid and unclear, then it becomes important for the judge to develop new laws.In some instances common laws may also be difficult to apply. However, there is another school of thought that believes that judge-made laws do not exist, and the statutes would be providing principles upon which case laws which would be developed. Any kind of a judge-made law would be a trespass on the powers of the legislation (Sackeville, 2001). Another reason why judges cannot make laws is that often if a judge creates a law that applies in a particular case, it would apply retrospectively, which destroys the basic purposes of the law.Thirdly, all the Statutes would overrule the case laws. There may be three kinds of relationships between the legislation-made laws and the common law. Firstly, common laws may supplement the legislation-made laws and in this way strengthen the legal process. Secondly, Parliament-made laws may replace a common law. Thirdly, if a particular Parliament-made law is outdated or is threatening the basic human rights, then the Court can decide that the same should be scrapped. Hence, it can be said that judges can state the law within the limits of the legal world.There are two ways in which laws can be interpreted by the advocate or the judge. One way is to determine what the statute might allow. The second way is to determine what the statute would definitely permit (Gleeson, 2001). Often the appellant courts and t he constitutional courts would be creating laws. If any statute would be impeding the Constitution, the same statute can be invalidated. A court may also implement a new rule or principle if it feels that the result of just implementing a law would not have desired results. This could even be in non-constitutional areas (Sackeville, 2001).

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

US Involvement in Southeast Asia essays

US Involvement in Southeast Asia essays Through a good portion of the 20th century, the US had many different forms of involvement in Southeast Asia. During this time, the United States was under the leadership of several different presidents. Therefore, the foreign policy, especially concerning Southeast Asia and Vietnam, was constantly changing. The first president to deal with communism in foreign countries was President Harry Truman. This started in 1945 when Truman adopted the policy of containment. The objective was to prevent communism from spreading around the world. Truman wanted to target Southeast Asia in particular because with so many little neighboring countries, they were the most vulnerable to falling to communism. Then from 1952-1960 Eisenhower took over the leadership of the US as president. Eisenhower stayed with Trumans theme of containment but added his own theories into the policy. Eisenhower adopted something called the Domino Theory. This meant that it was thought that if one country in Southeast Asia fell to communism, they all would just like dominos in a row. This theory led to the first actual US involvement in Southeast Asia. In 1930 Ho Chi Minh started the first communist party in Vietnam. At that point in time Vietnam was a French colony. However, Ho Chi Minh started the movement to get rid of France and have their own free country. Because of Eisenhowers Domino Theory, the US sent money to aid France in fighting the Vietnamese in order to prevent communism from spreading. Despite the attempts to stop Ho Chi Minh, France was defeated in 1954. The Geneva Conference was held in order to decide the future of Vietnam. The plan called the Geneva Accords was that Vietnam would be divided at the 38th parallel (the Line of Demarcation), foreign troops would leave in two years, and in two years Vietnam would be unified and a free election would be held for the entire free nation. However, ...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Mexican essays

Mexican essays We would like you to know we are not all docile nor revolutionaries but we are all survivors. . . We do not all pick lettuce, run assembly lines. . . We do not all sneak under barbed wire or wade the Rio Grande. These are the facts. . .(Castillo). Ana Castillo, the author of this poem, proves a point that as a race we all come here to the United Sates in search of a new life. We come here to survive and as Mexicans, we suffered a great deal. There has always been something there encouraging them to succeed in life, their family. Parents try their best to encourage their sons and daughters to succeed in life and take advantage of the opportunities they never had. Mexican parents work hard to give their families the best life, by creating and sharing great memories with them. Therefore, one can relate back to what ones childhood was like and what fond memories one keeps of them. Looking at what the present holds for us and what the future might bring makes one think that in order to succeed one has to overcome those fears of failing. Interestingly enough, my past experiences made me realize the world we live in is full of opportunities as well as the mistakes that we make that guides us how to choose the correct path. Therefore, as I look at my memories of my past I realize that I choose the correct path. My parents both came to the United Sates when I was one and a half years old and moved to Redwood City where we lived for the beginning of my life. Living in those apartments made me realize that not everyone chooses the right path. Growing up on those streets was the hardest challenge I had to overcome. Watching gang members destroy and ruin their lives over some insignificant symbolic mask that they wear that gave them power and made people like me and others scared of them. Looking back into my past I remember how one of my friends decided to take the wrong path and become part of a gang. I clearly remembe...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

The Highest Elevation Points in Each U.S. State

The Highest Elevation Points in Each U.S. State The United States of America is the third-largest country in the world based on population and land area. It has a total area of 3,794,100 square miles divided into 50 states. The topography of the states varies from the flat, low-lying areas of Florida to the rugged mountainous western states like Alaska and Colorado. The Highest Points In the U.S. This list notes the highest point in each state:Â   Alaska: Mount McKinley (or Denali) at 20,320 feet (6,193 m)California: Mount Whitney at 14,495 feet (4,418 m)Colorado: Mount Elbert at 14,433 feet (4,399 m)Washington: Mount Rainier at 14,411 feet (4,392 m)Wyoming: Gannett Peak at 13,804 feet (4,207 m)Hawaii: Mauna Kea at 13,796 feet (4,205 m)Utah: Kings Peak at 13,528 feet (4,123 m)New Mexico: Wheeler Peak at 13,161 feet (4,011 m)Nevada: Boundary Peak at 13,140 feet (4,005 m)Montana: Granite Peak at 12,799 feet (3,901 m)Idaho: Borah Peak at 12,662 feet (3,859 m)Arizona: Humphreys Peak at 12,633 feet (3,850 m)Oregon: Mount Hood at 11,239 feet (3,425 m)Texas: Guadalupe Peak at 8,749 feet (2,667 m)South Dakota: Harney Peak at 7,242 feet (2,207 m)North Carolina: Mount Mitchell at 6,684 feet (2,037 m)Tennessee: Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (2,025 m)New Hampshire: Mount Washington at 6,288 feet (1,916 m)Virginia: Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet (1,746 m)Nebraska: Panorama Point at 5,426 feet (1,654 m)New York: Mount Marcy at 5,344 feet (1,628 m) Maine: Katahdin at 5,268 feet (1,605 m)Oklahoma: Black Mesa at 4,973 feet (1,515 m)West Virginia: Spruce Knob at 4,861 feet (1,481 m)Georgia: Brasstown Bald at 4,783 feet (1,458 m)Vermont: Mount Mansfield at 4,393 feet (1,339 m)Kentucky: Black Mountain at 4,139 feet (1,261 m)Kansas: Mount Sunflower at 4,039 feet (1,231 m)South Carolina: Sassafras Mountain at 3,554 feet (1,083 m)North Dakota: White Butte at 3,506 feet (1,068 m)Massachusetts: Mount Greylock at 3,488 feet (1,063 m)Maryland: Backbone Mountain at 3,360 feet (1,024 m)Pennsylvania: Mount Davis at 3,213 feet (979 m)Arkansas: Magazine Mountain at 2,753 feet (839 m)Alabama: Cheaha Mountain at 2,405 feet (733 m)Connecticut: Mount Frissell at 2,372 feet (723 m)Minnesota: Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet (701 m)Michigan: Mount Arvon at 1,978 feet (603 m)Wisconsin: Timms Hill at 1,951 feet (594 m)New Jersey: High Point at 1,803 feet (549 m)Missouri: Taum Sauk Mountain at 1,772 feet (540 m)Iowa: Hawkeye Point at 1,670 feet (509 m)Ohio: Campbell Hill at 1,549 feet (472 m) Indiana: Hoosier Hill at 1,257 feet (383 m)Illinois: Charles Mound at 1,235 feet (376 m)Rhode Island: Jerimoth Hill at 812 feet (247 m)Mississippi: Woodall Mountain at 806 feet (245 m)Louisiana: Driskill Mountain at 535 feet (163 m)Delaware: Ebright Azimuth at 442 feet (135 m)Florida: Britton Hill at 345 feet (105 m)

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Human Resources in Probank Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 5250 words

Human Resources in Probank - Case Study Example Granted this is conducted in a fashion that suits the conventional research methodology, it becomes relatively easier to assign a research method that generates evidence for the research findings (Sato, 2000). At this juncture the findings and outcomes triggers the development of an obvious logic essential to make my hypothesis worth the expected consideration. Probank, a medium-sized Greek bank which started operations in 2001, has been growing at a remarkably fast pace, and is on track to get listed on the Athens Stock Exchange within 2008. The bank's Human Resources strategy is notable by its absence, but this could be viewed as not very surprising, insofar as the rise of the bank has been meteoric, the whole sector has been growing and operational issues were higher up on the agenda. As the organisation is maturing, this report will attempt to understand the mechanics of HR within Probank, including the obligatory devolution of personnel activities to line/branch managers, and evaluate the bank's performance in a number of key HR areas, namely knowledge management, performance management, employee satisfaction/retention, and the recruitment and development of managers/executives. Even though Probank do have a personnel department, it is very small (3 employees) and distinctively non-strategic, almost confining itself to purely administ rative matters. While there has been a lot of discussion about the devolution of HR to line management, there remains a very clearly identifiable gap in the published academic literature in that only Thornhill and Saunders (1998) have attempted to analyse a sizable organisation lacking a human resources department. On the strength of the (relatively) tiny size of the department and the impression conveyed by Probank managers during our conversations at the start of this project, it is felt that the "absentee specialist" paradigm effectively holds true for Probank, and, where applicable, parallels will be attempted with the Thornhill and Saunders (1998) study, in an attempt to evaluate the personnel situation at the bank, identify strong points in the current policy as well as its weaknesses, highlight areas for improvement and suggest ways for it to take place, considering both the "absentee specialist" scenario as well as one of more formal HR involvement. Cardinal to this report is the desire to identify a reconciling gap that will fill the existent void between academic literature and direct policy inclusions that have an intricate bearing on the justification, either covertly or overtly on the backseat role assigned to conventional human resource practice. It should be noted that, the depth of research carried out on this topic is very limited and where it is available is very scanty and vague. In this report, the practicality of the policy is explored from all angles using Probank as the main case in point. Suffice to explicitly state at this point that my report seeks to highlight and answer a number of pertinent questions that are directly related to the research goal. Measured by the overall performance of the bank since its inception, it should be asked

Friday, October 18, 2019

Business Process Management (Course work) Essay

Business Process Management (Course work) - Essay Example Review the recommendations made in the reports toward changes The report for the investigation commission had made numerous recommendations, which would help the NHS trust develop better strategies, which would drive performance management in a positive direction. First, the commission’s board suggested that the trust had the obligation of implementing better strategies that would help oversee quality management standards as well as security in the health care sector. Training for staff also was among the first agendas, bearing in mind that failure in the two hospitals had been attributed to untrained staff working for patients. It did not also forget to address on the issue of staff numbers and the capacity of those that are employed. The trust’s board had to develop criteria for all staff employment (Care quality commission report, 2010). On the other hand, it was deemed crucial that the trust develop appropriate CRM strategies that would provide room for hospitals an d other stakeholders to be keen on complaints by patients. Responsibility for the poor standards of care provided by the hospital The poor performance at the hospital was attributed employment of the untrained employees, inadequate government policies that were blindly followed by employees as well as lack of accountability by employees. I attribute the poor performance to the hospital management majorly, due to poor performance management systems. It is evident that deaths occurred rampantly, complaints were adversely brought by clients, but they could not consider any situation. More over, having realized that the Mid-Staffordshire NHS was not having appropriate operations management, they had a chance to replace it with another, which could provide better services. On the hand, the trust was adversely wrong, in not being considerate about the type of workers they employ within hospitals. How can untrained nurses and junior doctors be left to handle the patients alone? This was a critical condition that needed a quick address (Jeston and Nelis, 2006). Management’s key performance indicators (KPI’s) Performance indicators are said to have been so profound by the CEO, and were displeasing to all patients and the community around. First, presence of untrained staff working for patients in the hospital was quite amazing. Secondly, the situation was marked by unlistened to numerous complaints from the patients who addressed on poor treatment. More over, numerous massive deaths were experienced in the hospital in a day, which are attributed to poor handling of patients. Switching off the heart monitors was a fatal case, since this hindered the emergency patients from receiving the required treatment and ended up dying. The present staffs were also few in numbers, which meant that they were overburdened with work, a factor that exposed them to poor performance. Organisation of performance measurements The management should have effectively organized t heir performance measu

Buddhist teachings Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Buddhist teachings - Essay Example ing; 2) the desire as the reason for suffering; 3) nirvana as the cessation of suffering; and 4) the Eightfold Path which leads to the cessation of suffering. The Noble Eightfold Path was indicated by Buddha. It consists of eight rules and leads to the cessation of suffering and liberation from samsara. According to the median path it lies between the adherence to world pleasures and asceticism. 2. Theravada is the earliest school of Buddhism, which was formed by Buddha followers immediately after his death. They were trying to attain personal enlightenment by literal adherence to Gautama’s lifestyle and meditation practice. The knowledge of Theravada is recorded in canonical text Tipitaka and explained in large commentary literature. In the middle of the 5th century Theravadins divided into three groups, and in 100 years the most orthodox one established themselves in Sri Lanka. Mahayana emerged as an opposition to Theravada during first centuries B.C. and flourished in the beginning of the first millennium. The ideal of Mahayana is Bodhisattva – a person who is striving to enlightenment, but refuses nirvana for the liberation of all other beings from suffering. Mahayana argued that nirvana is available for everyone, both a layman and a monk, and everyone on his path to enlightenment may rely on bodhisattvas’ help. Vajrayana is Tantric Buddhist School which was originated in 3rd – 7th century in India and later was spread to Tibet. It embodies the idea of relative and absolute unity to the individual lives, claiming that each person has indestructible nature of the Buddha. The aim of Vajrayana is to bring mind into non-dual state, when each event expresses its unlimited potential. Its methods are designed for those who can see the reflection of own mind in his teacher, thus to adopt teacher’s non-personal qualities through the dedication and self-identification (Keown,

Meaning of Life Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Meaning of Life - Essay Example Besides these tortures, he encountered constant threats of being thrown into the gas ovens probably because of his physical appearance. However, in spite of the experiences he faced in the three camps that he served, he emerged as a visionary person. His reason for being optimistic was that human beings hold the freedom of choosing the manner in which they view the circumstances they undergo on a daily basis. Therefore, they create meaning from such circumstances. Frankl outlined three experiences that the prisoners went through after their arrival at the concentration camps, during their stay there and after they were freed from the camps. After realizing where they had been taken to and the reason for their transfer, the first experience that the prisoners felt was the shock. Later, the shock would be replaced by a second experience. The experience would be the phase of psychological reaction as well as apathy. These were the necessary methods that the prisoners would use to cope with the abuse that they received from their supervisors. During this stage, the fear of death was no longer the prisoners’ concern. On the contrary, the part that was most painful was the insults that they received. The prisoners would be given uniforms that were more of rags (Frankl, 7-26). Also, they would be issued with shoes most of which did not fit them. Those who had reported with better shoes had no choice but to give them to the SS guards or risk s evere punishments. At a time, the prisoners were forced to walk bare footed on the snow since their shoes had been worn out. The author describes a twelve-year-old boy who he saw being taken to the sickbay. The boy had been forced to stand attention on the snow bear footed for hours because there were no shoes for him at the camp. The results were that the boy’s toes got some frostbites. Frankl writes that there was a frequent

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Imperial China's Development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Imperial China's Development - Essay Example This study stresses that  the History of the Chinese people’s development does not just involve the rise and fall of dynasties, but is also greatly endowed by the presence of religion which played a primary role in the society. Religion played a key role in influencing their perception of the world, and of the people around them. These religions came into existence through their founders, who subscribed to a certain set of beliefs. The three most dominant religions in China include the Confucius wisdom, Budhism and the Taoist perception. Confucius, also known as Qong Kiu was the most influential of the Chinese history. His main idea was to create a moral upright behavior. His concern was for every government to build a just society. He believed in the respect for hierarchy, in which everyone should act according to his place in the hierarchy.  This paper highlights that the Taoism religion also influenced and still influences the Chinese religions. This perception is influ enced by the belief that there is a source of and force behind everything that exists.   The three attributes; patience, humility and compassion are emphasized on. This religion greatly influenced the nature of interactions between people in China, and has been widely embraced by the Chinese.  The Buddhism religion is closely linked to Confucius wisdom. They complement each other, and one cannot exist without the other. Buddhism embraces the role of the natural environment in bringing harmony in people.

Four Videos Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Four Videos - Essay Example As the essay discusses the outline demonstrated by the professor included US and UK parallels, British Academy initiatives, relation of language and national security, business, trade, big cities, media and culture. The first point of the outline was based on the issues of linguistic complacency, decreasing of language status in the sphere of education, high language skills of the population, especially in the spheres of business and policy. The role of tongue in the security and diplomacy was also denoted and analyzed by the professor. It is necessary to notice that ideas of Nigel Vincent related to different aspect of language in modern society were take from analyzing the reports that include national and international language data. One of the projects chosen by him was devoted to understanding the needs of language in the industry. From the report it is clear that next aspect of language that was analyzed by the professor was its power, contrasted to the military one and demonstrated on the examples of spreading of the British power by means of English language. It as characterized as 'soft power' in the lecture. Next, language from the cultural position was also analyzed in the lecture, particularly on the example of possibility of understanding the cultural phenomena and issues that becomes possible only in case of understanding the native language of the culture. There was a connection between social aspect of language and its cultural performance.

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Imperial China's Development Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Imperial China's Development - Essay Example This study stresses that  the History of the Chinese people’s development does not just involve the rise and fall of dynasties, but is also greatly endowed by the presence of religion which played a primary role in the society. Religion played a key role in influencing their perception of the world, and of the people around them. These religions came into existence through their founders, who subscribed to a certain set of beliefs. The three most dominant religions in China include the Confucius wisdom, Budhism and the Taoist perception. Confucius, also known as Qong Kiu was the most influential of the Chinese history. His main idea was to create a moral upright behavior. His concern was for every government to build a just society. He believed in the respect for hierarchy, in which everyone should act according to his place in the hierarchy.  This paper highlights that the Taoism religion also influenced and still influences the Chinese religions. This perception is influ enced by the belief that there is a source of and force behind everything that exists.   The three attributes; patience, humility and compassion are emphasized on. This religion greatly influenced the nature of interactions between people in China, and has been widely embraced by the Chinese.  The Buddhism religion is closely linked to Confucius wisdom. They complement each other, and one cannot exist without the other. Buddhism embraces the role of the natural environment in bringing harmony in people.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

(the questions shows in the PDF document) Essay

(the questions shows in the PDF document) - Essay Example The success that the House had in social reforms saw it give rise to the separist movement, which meant that it became socially acceptable for a woman to live her life and remain single or not get children, and instead develop her professional career. Jane Addams was one of the pioneers in the Hull house and would go on to become the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her social reform policies that would enable women to get basic rights including the right to vote in all the states (Legates 267). Q.2 The New Deal that was initiated by Franklin Roosevelt was to develop the economy through the great depression and it saw with it the inclusion of several programs for women. New posts were created so that women could get employment even if single. The view at the time had been that women should be married once they decide to have children and all government policy at the time was drafted on this assumption. The New Deal however acknowledged the existence of sin gle parent families specifically single mothers and widows and included them in their job creation acts even though some of Roosevelt’s cabinet members did not approve of this. ... from affluent single parent families that had been beneficiaries of the policies legislated during the Roosevelt era allowing women to work in industries even if not married. There was a development of organizations that were not of any hierarchy such as the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, and the Students for a Democratic Society. The groups although were progressive did see a rise in chauvinism as some of the senior women were still assigned to basic roles as fetching refreshments or taking notes until one of the male members raised a complaint over it. There was a rise in black feminism in these organizations as was seen when the female members of the group organized a sit in to protest their side-lining. White women also criticized the SNCC for their marginalization and even drafted a paper that they presented to the then chairperson Stokeley Carmichael that said that the status of women in the organization is the same as that of the black individual hired by a corpor ation for the purpose of diversity. They are there merely to present an attractive image but do not do much in the organization (LeGates 361). Q.4 Women in the civil rights movements performed activities such as registering voters and enlisting the help of older women more so of the black community where they were viewed as the leaders of the community. The Women activists also came from religious backgrounds and unlike in the past where the community vilified them, they did receive some praise from their peers for their activism. Shulamith Firestone was one of the most notable activists of her generation with her push for the acknowledgement of the female agenda which was getting sidelined as the Vietnamese war came to an end and most of the troops were headed back home as national heroes

Monday, October 14, 2019

The Age of Criminal Responsibility

The Age of Criminal Responsibility In recent years the attitude and mood towards young offenders is more server, due to a wide spread public perception of mounting youth crime, and the killing of toddler James Bulger by Jon Venables and Robert Thompson, who were only 10 years old at the time. Over the past years we are seeing more and more youths engaging in criminal behaviour, some not so serious, and a few striking cases for example, the Jamie Bulger case, and the Doncaster attacks. However only 17 percent of known offenders are aged between 10 and 17, which is surprising considering how much the media report on youth crime (Elliott, Quinn, 2009). Over the past year juvenile crime rates across the continent have remained more or less stable. However, this does not mean that the problem of youth crime is insignificant. Several countries have reported a worrying trend that more young offenders are committing more violent and serious crimes. Young people, who commit crimes at a young age start with an early criminal ca reer, are harder to reintegrate back into a normal life. This is one reason why it is necessary to discuss the problem of juvenile justice in depth (Hammarberg, 2008). There are two different trends in Europe at the current time. One is to reduce the age of criminal responsibility and to lock up more children at younger ages and for more offences. The other trend is in the spirit of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child to avoid criminalization and to seek family-based or other social alternatives to imprisonment. However in the UK theres a debate on whether or not the age of criminal responsibility should be higher, in which I argue it should. However, the age of criminal responsibility varies greatly across the world. It ranges from 6 in North Carolina or 7 in India, South Africa, Singapore and most of the United States of America, to 13 in France 16 in Portugal and 18 in Belgium. There has recently been much talk in England and Wales, where the age is now 10, about whether this should be raised. Britain and other countries set minimum ages at which a child or young person are allowed to make decisions without a adult or guardians consent for good reason. It is related to judgments about a childs intellectual, emotional and mental maturity. The position where a child has to make far-reaching decisions about their future should never be choice, children need appropriate adult support, guidance and, in some cases, veto. Adults take responsibility for children in decision making as it is seen that children cannot make informed choices and do not have the capacity to do it themselves. The United Nations believe that the same principles should be applied to the age of criminal responsibility (Guardian). The age of criminal responsibility is the age at which it is possible to be charged with a crime and put on trial. (REFERENCE) The UN Committee suggested that twelve is a too low number on the rights of a child and has recommended that serious consideration to be given to rising th e age of criminal responsibility throughout the areas in the UK It is difficult to understand and defend the UK and prevailing practices in Europe for being so out on line. Other methods needs to be thoroughly explored when it comes to ensuring that children take responsibility for their own actions, by drawing what the UN Committee have commended by the positive lessons from reparation, referral orders and other restorative justice schemes for offenders. It might also be an area where listening to children could pay dividends (Broadbridge, 2009). In 1985 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Beijing Rules of juvenile justice, which go further than the UN Committee on the rights of the child. The rules state that the age of criminal responsibility shall not be fixed at too low an age level, bearing in mind the facts of emotional, mental and intellectual maturity. It then goes on to argue that countries should consider whether a child can live up to the moral and psychological components of criminal responsibility and details that if the age of criminal responsibility is set too low the notion of responsibility would become meaningless. On this basis the minimum age of criminal responsibility in the UK should be 16 (guardian). It is also important to know and understand that some countries have a rule called doli incapax. It is held with an assumption that over a certain age that children can be criminally responsible, however, sufficiently mature enough for such a responsibility. If the defence team are successful then that child cannot be found guilty (Muncie, 2009). Generally speaking, there are two major issues to this debate. Firstly, at what age can you call a child grown- up enough to understand right from wrong, and the consequences of those actions? Secondly, at what age can a child comprehend and understand the criminal justice system and trail process enough to take part in it? (REFERENCE). Most European countries have a welfare based system in place to deal with young offenders as their age of criminal responsibility is mostly higher than England and Wales. The Criminal Justice Act 1998 abolished the doli incapax increased the tendency to treat children as if they were adults. Which can be seen in the James Bulger case as John Venables and Robert Thompson were tried in an adult court. Although a ten year old may understand what is right and what is wrong, they do not understand the implications of what they have done and what has to be as a consequence of those actions. Capacity and competence relate to age, understanding and maturity should be considered in any trial in which a child is a defendant (MaMahon, Payne, 2001). England has one of the highest conviction rates for young offenders; this may be due to the low age of criminal responsibility or the fact that we have a punitive state. Whereas in contrast Belgium on the other hand have a high criminal responsibilit y age with only a faction on youth offenders in custody. (NACRO, 2002) Offenders who are under the age of 18 years old are delt with differently from adults, as it is believed that children are less responsible for their actions than adults, a wish to steer children away from further involvement in crime. Sentencing young people has always posed a dilemma: should such offenders be seen as a product of their upbringing and have their problems treated, or are they to be regarded as bad, and have their actions punished? Over the past couple of decades sentencing policy has swung between two views. In 1969, the Labour Government took the approach that delinquency was a result of deprivation, which could be treated, and one of the aims of the Children and Young Persons act of that year was to decriminalise the offending of young people. The opposite approach was introduced by the conservatives which led to the UK having a high number of young people locked up than any other west European country, but reconviction rates of 75-80percent suggested that this was not benefiting the young offenders or the country as a whole. Since 1982, the philosophy behind legislation has been that the sentencing of young people should be based on the offence committed and not on the offenders personal or social circumstances, or the consequent chances of reform. (Elliott, Quinn, 2009) In law many children do not possess the emotional maturity to be held responsible for their actions. Everyone knows that children cannot always make informed choices. It is for this reason that children are not allowed to vote in many countries and cannot consent to sex or drink alcohol. It is seen that children do not have enough life experience and more importantly they do not have the same mental and emotional abilities as adults. Children are often not aware of the consequences of their actions. It is unfair to hold children accountable for these actions as even though children know the difference between right and wrong, they often do not understand the difference between various levels of wrongdoing. However you could argue that children do know right from wrong, for example. In the abduction of Jamie Bulger in 1993, Jon Venables and Robert Thompson must have known to some degree that what they did was wrong, or they would not have lied about it and tried to cover it up. Moreov er, It is important that the criminal law underlines the difference between right and wrong by punishing children and adults who commit crimes. By criminalising children it harms their development and makes the situation even worse. Labelling a child as criminal at a very young age is less likely to lead to a better understanding of what is right and what is wrong. If the child does not understand the wrongfulness of what they have done, they may feel unjustly treated by society and rebel against them accepting the label in which society has given them, and also feel bitter towards society as a whole. The people who surround the child are more likely to be treated worse such as parents and teachers which inevitably separate them from society.In addition to this, those who are sent to prison or young offender institutes get cut off from their family and friends and can develop friendships with other criminals, they can also learn more knowledge about committing crimes before they went into prison, therefore, never really breaking free from the life of crime. All of these reactions are likely to make the childs situation worse and increase the chance of future criminal behaviour. However criminalising children is a necessary step to show the child that those actions were wrong. Children that have committed crimes have often grown up in communities without a structure or control in their lives. The child may see drug-taking, domestic violence and criminal activity in their homes, and they may have often skipped school. These children need to be punished as without punishment the children will never know the cost of their own actions. The children are then less likely to commit crimes in the future as they now know that if they do something wrong a punishment will follow. In addition to this, other children will be are less likely to commit crimes if they know a punishment will follow their actions. We are not persuaded by the argument that criminalising children is the best route to rehabilitation. As the Childrens Rights Alliance for England put it, responding directly to the Ministers comment- The UK has a well-developed child welfare system that is more than capable of assessing and meeting the needs of children without them having to be charged or treated as criminals. The [JCHR] will be aware of the recent very critical joint report from eight Inspectorate and regulatory bodies into how well children are being safeguarded. Of the youth offending teams work with children in prison, the report concludes, the focus was almost exclusively upon the offending behaviour of the young people, and there was little evidence of welfare needs being considered and addressed. This should give a red signal to a government so intent on responding to children in trouble-especially the youngest ones -through the criminal justice system rather than through our child welfare system (Broadbridge, 2009). It is often said that children who commit crimes are victims of circumstance, and instead of punishing children we need to address those circumstances. Studies such as (REFERENCE) show that more often than not the most vulnerable children have grown up in poverty, and have been uncared for by their parents, often skipped school, and even abused. By sending these children to young offenders institutions, their education is harmed, and the possibility of the University of Crime, other measures should be considered. For example, in Norway, social authorities need to take action to secure a childs development through counselling or time spent in a special care unit. The measures that are take should depend on the childs circumstances, rather than how bad the crime was. This is more than likely to reduce the criminal behaviour of young people in the future. There could be issues to do with class in the mix here. Rich children are less likely to be criminalised as their parents will be abl e to afford better lawyers which will be able to deal with the situation better. However people argue that a child is more at risk if they do not receive a criminal punishment. Not all punishments are retributive; rehabilitation can be combined with the education and training that the child will receive in prison in order to integrate the child back into society. If these sanctions were not in place, it would be more difficulty for younger children to resist the temptation of assisting older criminals. It is seen that children cannot have a fair trial. Many children often struggle to understand the trial process, which can be stressful and also have technical problems. Given the seriousness of being found guilty, it is only fair and important that people do have a fair trial and punishment is given if found guilty. It is more than likely that children do not have the concentration to follow evidence properly, therefore they may not be able to give fluent instructions to their lawyers and are misunderstood. This is a considerable injustice to the child/ children that are on trial, as if they do not understand, or potentially intimidated by the foreign surroundings and language they are not familiar with, then a grave injustice can occur. For example, in the Jamie Bulger case, thoroughout the trail process it was noted that the John Venables and Robert Thompson looked bored and bewildered by the whole process. It is argued that it is possible to make the system work for children. Aus tralia, Singapore and the USA and many other countries have special courts for offenders under the age of 18.The design of the courts are simpler and designed to be less intimidating for a child, which allows them to be able to follow the criminal process more clearly. As long as the safeguards are in place to protect young people, it is possible for a child to have a fair trial, as long as that child is not tried in an adult court. Societies understanding of childhood do not arise because of some innate nature of children childs rights. In particular, childrens competence, to what extent a child a child can assert their legal rights and to what extent do adults interpret a childs competence, with this political question proves the rights and policies for the child. The history of juvenile history reflects the influential portrayals of perceived child competence. The origins of juvenile justice along the welfare approach are based upon the belief that childrens incompetence and lack of criminal responsibility. This foundation lends itself to broad state authority to intervene in childrens lives, which in reality has often proven disastrous for children. In response to these problems, a shift in juvenile justice occurred towards the justice approach, which inevitably constructed a childhood based around the notion that children did have the mental capacity and competence to understand and have criminal responsibility The MACR notes the tipping point among tipping notions about childhood; competencies; liberty and protection rights; and the welfare justice continuum. However in the justice approach the notion of responsibility often, if not always, serves as a trap door rather than a safeguard, in which it was originally intended. Instead of ensuring freedom for the state intrusion, its meaning can become distorted and may legitimise social control over children whose true responsibility is questionable. The effects of moral condemnation and punishment follow even where underlying moral responsibility is missing. At the cost of individual liberly, moral legitimacy, and justice, the publics conscience is relieved and authorities effective social control is consolidated. Paradoxically, the welfare approach may appeal to different concepts of childrens rights, but neither communicates a clear role for society at large, and bother bring the weight of problems down upon individual children and families. Such inherent flaws leave both the justice approach and the welfare approach as problematic models. We also note, as did the UN Committee, that the Government has abolished the common law principle of doli incapax (the rebuttable presumption that children aged 10-13 years are incapable of criminal intent). The effect of this has been described as follows.This means that a 10 year old child, till in primary school is presumed to be as criminally responsible as a fully mature adult. This surely cannot be right. In the light of the removal of this safeguard, we recommend that the government review the effects of the low age of criminal responsibility on children and on crime. The criminalisation of young children has to be justified by very convincing evidence- it is not sufficient to assert that it is the best, or the only way to diverting them from a future of crime.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Essay --

â€Å"America the land of opportunities is currently going through one of the worst poverty rates in over 50 years† said Michael Karibian researcher and journalist on poverty. Many people are in poverty and they have no one to blame but themselves. People remain in poverty for the reason that they do not have the desire to change and be successful and take charge of their own life; anyone can avoid poverty although the problem is people’s attitudes towards change. It can be easy to simply give up and blame others for their misfortune but in reality those people only have themselves to blame for their own misfortune in life. Getting out of poverty is difficult but it is not impossible for those who are willing to take control of their lives and no longer be a victim of thee own mistakes. America has opportunities for everyone who desires to avoid poverty by making smart choices, getting a good education and neglecting bad influences. People are quick to blame the government for all the poverty in America when in reality they only have themselves to blame for their own misfortune. â€Å"They didn’t run as fast as everyone else, and if they ran faster, they’d do better† said Allan G. Johnson. The point of this quote is that if people do not try to get themselves back up they will not succeed and stay where they are at. It is true that there are uncontrollable external factors built into politics that can intensify the challenges to make the smartest choices, which are not always the easiest or obvious, but the blame must be placed on individuals because poverty has a partial but direct correlation to individuals choices they make. A reason for the poverty rates in America are because communities have established a poverty culture. An article ... ... the line by trying them. Girls who get pregnant at a young age have no one to blame but themselves unless they were raped. All these things can happen to both rich people and poor people although people that live in poverty will have a harder time getting past all the negative influences then rich people, but that does not mean it is not impossible for them to have a successful life as long they focus on being successful anyone form any background can make it in life. Living in poverty is not a matter of bad luck it is a matter of individuals lacking the determination to be someone in life and always trying to take the easy way out. Those who are determined in life can be anything they want no matter their background. America has opportunities for everyone who desires to avoid poverty by making smart choices, getting a good education and neglecting bad influences.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

The Black Cat Essay -- essays research papers fc

A Glimpse Into the World of 'The Black Cat';   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Those who have read any of Edgar Allan Poe's short stories know that most of them are full of suspense and mystery and that they efflict a feeling of horror and shock upon the reader. Poe studies the mind, and is conscious of the abnormalities of his narrators and he does not condone the intellectual expedient through which they strive, only too earnestly, to justify themselves. He enters the field of the starkly, almost clinically realistic investigation of men who, although they may feel uneasy about their mental states when their tension lets up, are too far gone to understand their mania, let alone to control it (Gargano 171). His stories usually have a horrible murder theme in which there is a obsessive narrator and they follow the development of the theme step by step with a realism that, barring with genius, might case a history from the twentieth-century psychiatry. This could not be presented more clearly than in 'The Black Cat';. Those who may deny realism to Poe cannot be very familiar with our daily newspapers, which periodically carry true stories of murders committed under just abnormal psychological pressures as those described in 'The Black Cat'; (Buranelli 76). This story begins with the narrator ,who is about to be hung, confessing what he has done in some type of repention for his soul. The narrator step by step describes how he began drinking and then to neglect his dearly beloved cat and his wife. One day when he is maddened by the actions of the cat, he cuts out its eye and later kills the cat by hanging it. After his house burns down and he has lost all he owned he finds a new cat resembling all to well the first. One day while working with his wife in the cellar he is nearly tripped down the stairs by the cat, he then picks up an axe and tries to kill it but his swing is intercepted by his wife and he instead strikes her and kills her instantly. He conceals the body but then when the police come, he in a mocking manner taps the wall in which she is buried and reveals to the police what he has done(Poe). In Edgar Allan Poe's 'The Black Cat,'; his use of point of view, symbolism, foreshadowing, and theme all combine with what he calls 'a series of mere household events'; to show how the narrator is driven into madness (Poe 1).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Tol... ...uld have not got the full effect that Poe was trying to convey, which is that just about anyone can be driven into madness and that the narrator in this story is not very different from any other person. Works Cited Buranelli, Vincent. Edgar Allan Poe: Second Edition. Boston: Twanyne Publishers, 1977. 76-77. Davidson, Edward H. Poe: A Critical Study. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1957. 190. Gargano, James W. 'The Question of Poe's Narrators.'; POE: A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. Robert Regan. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1967. 169-171. Hoffman, Daniel. Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe Poe. Garden City: Doubleday & Company, 1972. May, Charles E. Edgar Allan Poe: A Study of the Short Fiction. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1991. 78. Poe, Edgar Allan. 'The Black Cat.'; Ed. Martha Womack. Internet 29 July. 1998. Available Prinsky, Norman. 'The Black Cat.'; Masterplots II: Short Story Series. Ed. Frank N. Magil. Vol. 1. Pasadena: Salem Press, 1986. 231-34. Womack, Martha. 'Edgar Allan Poe's 'The Black Cat.''; Internet. 2 August 1998. Available http: //

Friday, October 11, 2019

A career in Education Essay

Being a teacher is a career that I have always desired to follow ever since I was a young girl. It was at the end of my elementary years when I first decided I wanted to become a teacher; I thought it was a cool job to have. When I was younger I use to think how cool it would be to be in control of the whole class, it was like being the boss. When I reached high school I decided that I wanted to become an elementary teacher. I started to realize how interested I was in learning about children and how much I loved being around them. This is when I knew that pursuing a career in teaching is what would make me the happiest. People have their own opinions on how they portray teachers. Some may see them as mean and controlling, while others might see them as guidance in their educational life. I feel teachers make a difference in the life and future of their students. Teachers are educators as well as advisors. They help and give guidance to students in their educational choices, and day to day life. TV sitcoms are what I feel have influenced these stereotypes upon teachers. On some TV sitcoms teachers are portrayed as older women that are mean and always out to sabotage the students’ life. Other sitcoms portray the teachers as young women that are sweet and caring. This is why some may stereotype teachers as annoying and always trying to tell you how to live your life, or as a kind and helpful teacher. See more:  Manifest Destiny essay When one becomes a teacher there are some good things and not so good things, just as any other job. The pros about becoming a teacher are that one is able to influence children to become the best that they can be and knowing that one made a difference in someone’s life. Another pro is having an opportunity to help children learn and get acquainted with new thoughts. Some other good qualities are that teachers have steady daytime hours with the weekend off. They have excellent vacation days and often quite longer than any other occupations. With having most of the summer off, it gives the teacher more time to spend with their family or do anything else that needs to get done. The cons would be when you have a problem child in your class. Teachers have to have patience and learn how to work with struggling students. Teaching can sometimes be a bit stressful at times because you have to work and help with everyone’s problems. Also, a teacher’s salary is  not very lucrative. The requirements for becoming a teacher are that you must have a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college or university. You must complete teacher training through an approved program. The programs are offered through colleges and universities, school districts, regional service centers, community colleges, and other entities. You must successfully complete the appropriate teacher certification tests for the subject and grade level you wish to teach. There are many different resources that will help pay for a teacher training program. There is the â€Å"Teach for Texas† program, which offers conditional grants to help some future teachers with expenses if those individuals agree to teach in Texas public schools for a specified period of time. The â€Å"Teacher for America†, offers cash awards that can be applied to past student loans or future educational costs for recent college graduates who commit to teaching in urban and rural public schools for two years. The â€Å"Certified Educational Aide Exemption Program†, is another program that Texas offers tuition exemptions for some educational aides seeking to become certified teachers. These are some of the programs and grants that are specifically designed to help individuals become teachers. The starting salary of a teacher varies, depending on the district they work for. Texas teacher starting salaries, for a teacher with a bachelor’s degree and no teaching experience is $43,216. The more experience they have the higher the pay will be. Also, if they teach in a district with a lot of students the pay will be higher. When becoming an elementary teacher the number one thing the teacher should posses is patience. They need to be able to communicate well with the parent, and have a good relationship with them. They need to ensure a high quality educational experience. The teacher must have a sense of humor because children can tend to say some crazy things at times. You will have to learn to just laugh about it and not take things to seriously. They must be kind and loving. Teachers need to have a happy attitude, because children can sense when you are not having a good day and it can affect the children’s learning environment. A great teacher creates a sense of community and belonging in the classroom. They have a variety of activities for the day that will keep a child’s attention. The environment of the class should be welcoming and colorful. Children will feel more comfortable, and encouraged to do well in a friendly classroom. When working with children it is a good idea to put comments on their papers like â€Å"great job†. It shows them that they are doing well and should keep up the good work. Teachers will be responsible for preparing and delivering age-appropriate lessons, giving and grading tests and homework, working with children individually and as a class and maintaining an orderly and functional classroom environment. Other tasks may include meeting with parents to discuss their child’s progress and working with parents and other staff members to track and assist children in making progress. Some additional tasks teacher can do are after school tutoring and taking children on fun and educational field trips. Becoming an elementary teacher is a career that I know will make me happy, and a goal I plan to accomplish. Since high school I have been taking classes that will give me some experience and help me pursue my career. During my senior year of high school I was in a class that would allow the student to be an assistant aide to a teacher. I was assigned to a first grade class and loved it. It was a good learning experience and gave me the opportunity to see what activities went on during the class. I learned a lot from the teacher and hope to carry on some of her good tactics in my future class. For me, becoming a teacher is a career I have always desired and plan to work hard for.